2 the island hopping campaign began in august 1942

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2. The island-hopping campaign began in August 1942 when American marines landed on Guadalcanal in the southern Pacific, where six months of fighting had showed how costly it would be to defeat Japan. 3. In mid-1943, American, Australian, and New Zealand forces launched offensives in New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, gradually securing the South Pacific. 4. As the Allies attacked island after island, Japanese soldiers were ordered to refuse to surrender no matter how hopeless their plight. 5. While the island-hopping campaign kept pressure on Japanese forces, the Allies invaded the Philippines in the fall of 1944. 6. By June 1945, the Japanese were nearly defenseless on sea and in the air but their leaders prepared to fight to the death for their homeland.
C. Atomic Warfare 1. In mid-July 1945, as Allied forces were preparing for the final assault on Japan, American scientists tested the atomic bomb near Los Alamos, New Mexico, sending a mushroom cloud of debris eight miles into the atmosphere. 2. A delegation of scientists and officials hoped to persuade Japan to surrender by giving a demonstration of the bomb's destructive power, but U.S. government officials rejected the idea. 3. President Truman heard about the successful bomb test at Los Alamos when he was in Potsdam, Germany, negotiating with Stalin about postwar issues. 4. Truman saw no reason not to use the atomic bomb against Japan if it would save American lives. 5. Truman also recognized that the bomb gave the United States a devastating atomic monopoly that could be used to counter Soviet ambitions and advance American interests in the postwar world. 6. When Japan refused to surrender unconditionally by the deadline, Truman ordered that the bomb be dropped without warning on Japanese cities not already heavily damaged by American raids. 7. Japan surrendered on August 14.

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