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Early hip-hop dance styles on the West Coast were known as “Poppin” and “Lockin” •Break dancers don't like to be called breakers of breakdancers and prefer B-boys and B-girls Key Breaking Crews•Rock Steady Crew •New York City Breakers •One of the key responsibilities of DJ from beginning of Hip-hop was the creation of Breaks •Isolation of one particular section of a musical composition •Served as a vamp for the MC or for B-boys/B-girls to dance to Breaks •Because percussive breaks were so short, DJ Kool Herc and other DJ’s extended them using an audio mixer and two copies of the record •DJ would play the beat on one record, while searching for and playing the same beat on the other record, using the mixer to alternate between the 2 •They could play the break for as long as needed •Mixers, amplifiers, speakers and other pieces of electronic music equipment formed an essential part of a DJ’s arsenal •Breakdown is a core element of hip-hop: gave rise to breakdancing, B-boys and B-girls
Other Cultural Foundations of Hip-Hop •Rhyming •Storytelling •Poetry •Comedy Comedy •Rap and hip-hop cannot exist without comedy •Cannot be a hip-hop artist without comedy •Being a comedian requires someone to be the highest level of intellect who can understand society at all levels Important Comedians Include: •Redd Foxx •Richard Pryer •Eddie Murphy •Dave Chappelle •Chris Rock •Pig Meat Markham Early DJ’s and Crews: DJ Kool Herc •Born: Clive Campbell, April 16.1955 •Origin: The Bronx, NYC •Born in Jamaica •Credited with Originating Hip-hop •Never recorded any albums Surgarhill Gang •“Rappers Delight” is conserved the first song to popularize hip-hop in the US and the World •Rap is a revolt of disco, yet “Rapper’s Delight” uses a disco sample •“Sample” comes from from the disco hit “Good Times” by Chic •Sample is played by the live band, Positive Force •Sampling equipment was readily available at that time, hence live musicians •Sampling equipment did mature shortly after and therefore live musicians were quickly obsolete Kurtis Blow •Born: Kurtis Walker, Aug 9.1959 •Origin: Harlem, NYC •First commercially successful hip hop artist •First hip-hop artist to sign with a major record label •Hit single, “the breaks” was 1st rap sonf to be certified Gold •Was picked up by a major label as a result of DJ Hollywood who proved that Rap/Hip-hop was viable industry Pig Meat Markham •Slapstick comedian from the 1950s •In 1968, Markham recorded a single on Chess Records, labelled “Here Comes the Judge”, which is the prototype that would evolve into rapping •Record influenced many artists such as DJ Hollywood, who cites Markham as being a key influence in the development of rap as we know it today
Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five •Born: Joseph Sadler. Jan 1. 1958 •Origin: South Bronx, NYC •Pioneered mixing techniques such as cutting and mixing •Was one of the 1st DJ’s to rap about life in the hood •“The message” marked the birth of “serious” hip-hop •