doubled max. penalties for dealing in illegal drugs*$5000 and 10 yrs in jail and illegal possession of opioids or cocaine was ground for convictionIn 1924, another act prohibited importing of opium for heroin manufacturing; from the 1922 Act and this one what 3 important trends arose?1. users were criminals to regulatory agencies2. response to illicit market was heavier penalties and more aggressive enforcement3. focus was on drug elimination (as if drug itself was issue)How did the Supreme Court rule in the 1925 Linder case?legal for physicians to prescribe opioids to dependent users as part of curing program*damage was done though, docs didn't want to botherIn 1928, what individuals made up ~1/3 of total populations of inmates?drug violatorsIn 1929, Congress noticed the amount of individuals imprisoned for drug violations and decided they should be treated and "cured," rather than repeatedly jailed, so what did they do?voted to establish 2 "narcotic farms" for those dependent on drugs (even weed and peyote)*1935- Lexington, KY farm opened holding ~1,000 pts.A need for new approaches to dependence, the end of prohibition, and corruption in the past; what did Congress form in 1930?separate Bureau of Narcotics in the Treasury Dept.*Harry Anslinger- 1st commissioner; pledged to stop arresting so many users and focus on big dealersAnslinger followed lead of J. Edgar Hoover (director of FBI) and eachman forged great careers, and were regularly reappointed by new presidents; over his 30 years ('32-'62), what did Anslinger control?almost total control of fed. efforts in drug education, prevention, treatment, and enforcement
Anslinger efforts to bring weed into public light, lead to what?1937 Marijuana Tax Act- suppose to register and pay tax to legally import, buy, or sell weed*from '37 to '70- weed considered a narcoticBoggs amendment to Harrison Act did what?established minimum sentence for drug violationsWhat was the McCarthy era?view of communists (China) trying to demoralize US (drug dependency was thought as one way they were doing this)*later found that McCarthy was an alcoholic and addicted to morphine (Anslinger aided him in getting his supply)In response to public fight against communism and drugs, Congress passed 1956 Narcotic Drug Control Act, which included 2 provisions?1. Possession after 1st-offense resulting in a jail term2. Those caught selling to minors could receive death penalty1960s saw an increase in drug use; with different users and different drugs, this sparked the passing of 1965 Drug Abuse Control amendments, explain 4 outcomes?1. new users were educated and privileged2. new drugs altered mood and consciousness (amphetamines, hallucinogens)3. amendments made new class called dangerous drugs (included hallucinogens like LSD)4. lead to new name- Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous DrugsDrug laws just continued to become confusing and hard to enforce so in 1970 a new law, Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Prevention Act, erased all old laws and started a clean slate, what are 4 statements regarding the law?