achieved through a direct grasping intuiting of the essential structure of

Achieved through a direct grasping intuiting of the

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achieved through a direct grasping (intuiting) of the essential structure of phenomena as they appear in consciousness (Van Manen 1990 ). The phenomenological aspect of this approach focuses on the lived experience of the case study participant s experience of trauma, and the resulting narcissistic response including the development of a gambling addiction. As stated above, a key component of the phenome- nological approach is intentionality, and here the intentional object will be the experience of trauma and the subsequent development of pathological gambling behavior (Osborne 1990 ; van Manen 1990 ). Hermeneutics The research approach used in this study acknowledges the hermeneutical refinement of phenomenology. Heidegger ( 1962 , 1982 ) is accredited with developing a form of hermeneutics to clarify under what conditions understanding occurs. Whereas Husserl advocated for bracketing , which is the suspension of all biases and beliefs regarding the phenomenon being researched prior to collecting data about it, Heidegger sug- gested that presuppositions are not to be eliminated or suspended as he rejected the possibility of and necessity for a transcendental standpoint that grounds knowledge and experience (Palmer 1969 ). We are already each one of us a being-in-the-world (Heidegger 1962 ). The hermeneutical phenomenology perspective recognizes that all understanding, phenomenological and natural science, is interpretive (Madison 1990 ). Hermeneutics does not mean interpretation in terms of correctness and agreement; instead herme- neutics carries its deeper traditional overtones of bringing out a hidden meaning, of bringing out what is unknown into the light of day (Palmer 1969 ). Interpretation is not a matter of sticking a value on a naked object, for what is encountered arises as already seen in a particular relationship (Palmer 1969 ). In support of Heidegger this research refutes Husserl s claim of presuppositionless interpretation, as Heidegger believed that interpretation was never the presuppositionless grasping of something given in advance (Palmer 1969 , p. 136). Further to this notion of interpretation, Ricoeur ( 1970 , 1981 ) pointed out that interpreting text is not to realize or understand the intentions of the narrator, but to understand the meaning of the text itself. When following text beyond the situation and the intentions of the author, the text discloses possible modes of being in the world that can be appropriated. Utilizing this approach, we can come to new under- standings as we understand the text in a way that dramatically changes our perspec- tives. Understanding a new perspective is impossible unless we are able and willing to abandon our positions and risk our assumptions (Madison 1990 ). In doing this Int J Ment Health Addiction
research, we were surprised by how the following case study seemed to mirror Almaas s transformation of narcissism, calling for an interpretation of the case using his theory.

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