achieved through a direct grasping (intuiting) of the essential structure of phenomena asthey appear in consciousness (Van Manen1990).The phenomenological aspect of this approach focuses on the lived experience of the casestudy participant’s experience of trauma, and the resulting narcissistic response including thedevelopment of a gambling addiction. As stated above, a key component of the phenome-nological approach is intentionality, and here the intentional object will be the experience oftrauma and the subsequent development of pathological gambling behavior (Osborne1990;van Manen1990).HermeneuticsThe research approach used in this study acknowledges the hermeneutical refinementof phenomenology. Heidegger (1962,1982) is accredited with developing a form ofhermeneutics to clarify under what conditions understanding occurs. Whereas Husserladvocated for‘bracketing’, which is the suspension of all biases and beliefs regardingthe phenomenon being researched prior to collecting data about it, Heidegger sug-gested that presuppositions are not to be eliminated or suspended as he rejected thepossibility of and necessity for a transcendental standpoint that grounds knowledgeand experience (Palmer1969). We are already each one of us a“being-in-the-world”(Heidegger1962).The hermeneutical phenomenology perspective recognizes that all understanding,phenomenological and natural science, is interpretive (Madison1990). Hermeneuticsdoes not mean interpretation in terms of correctness and agreement; instead herme-neutics carries its deeper traditional overtones of bringing out a hidden meaning, ofbringing out what is unknown into the light of day (Palmer1969). Interpretation isnot a matter of sticking a value on a naked object, for what is encountered arises asalready seen in a particular relationship (Palmer1969). In support of Heidegger thisresearch refutes Husserl’s claim of presuppositionless interpretation, as Heideggerbelieved that interpretation was never the“presuppositionless grasping of somethinggiven in advance”(Palmer1969, p. 136).Further to this notion of interpretation, Ricoeur (1970,1981) pointed out thatinterpreting text is not to realize or understand the intentions of the narrator, but tounderstand the meaning of the text itself. When following text beyond the situationand the intentions of the author, the text discloses possible modes of being in theworld that can be appropriated. Utilizing this approach, we can come to new under-standings as we understand the text in a way that dramatically changes our perspec-tives. Understanding a new perspective is impossible unless we are able and willingto abandon our positions and risk our assumptions (Madison1990). In doing thisInt J Ment Health Addiction
research, we were surprised by how the following case study seemed to mirrorAlmaas’s transformation of narcissism, calling for an interpretation of the case usinghis theory.