Sterling Turner article – Under Phase II o Formula: - number of target behaviors followed by specific environmental consequence/total number of target behaviors occurring during an observation period o Formula = # of target behaviors followed by specific environmental consequence DIVDED BY Total # of target behaviors occurring during observation period. Escape – p. 265; p. 6-7, p. 26, p. 51 Access – p. 4-6; p. 26; p. 50
Socially mediated – p. 20-21; p. 93; p. 104 – obtain the reinforcer through the actions of another person Positive reinforcement – p. 4-6; p. 26 o Behaviors that produce a consequence that increases the likelihood the behavior is going to occur in the future. o *Consequence is added o Functions involve behaviors that produce an environmental event that subsequently increases the likelihood of that behavior under the same or similar antecedent motivating conditions. In other words, the operation of positive reinforcement involves a behavior that produces an event (activity, object) that subsequently strengthens the occurrence of that behavior in the future (under certain motivational contexts) Negative reinforcement – p. 6-7; p. 26 o Behaviors that terminate or postpone the likelihood the behavior is going to occur again in the future. o *Adverse stimulus is taken away o In negative reinforcement, the effect of the behavior is to terminate the existence of, or postpone (for some time), the presentation of a stimulus condition or event. Such an event is commonly referred to as aversive or unpleasant (relative to the individual). Realize that the term “aversive” is relative. What is aversive to one person may not be to another; what is aversive today may be less aversive next week. The subsequent effect of a negative reinforcement contingency on behavior is one of increasing its probability under the same or similar conditions in the future. Negative reinforcement functions are called escape functions (includes avoidance functions in this terminology). Difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement – Cipani, p. 7- 10, Tables 1.1 and 1.2 – examples o The key similarity in positive and negative reinforcement of behavior is they both INCREASE target behavior. Positive ADDS something to the environment and Negative TAKES AWAY.
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- Fall '14