frastructure the building up of such capacity is an urgent matter However real

Frastructure the building up of such capacity is an

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frastructure, the building up of such capacity is an urgent matter. However, real efforts have been meagre despite the urgency of the climate problem, the limited capacity of developing countries, and the presence of capital and technology capacity in the developed world. The delay will increase the overall cost of future efforts to achieve the needed mitigation. The current economic crisis has further aggra- vated the existing tensions concerning the respon- sibility to support the needed low-carbon transfor- mation. Tight capital availability, growing account deficits, and increased focus on national competi- tiveness have had at least two effects. The first is a slowing of developed countries’ investment in low- carbon technology development (though in- vestments by risk capital have increased during this period) (Frankfurt School-UNEP Centre/BNEF, 2013). The second effect is the stimulation of co- operation toward capacity building within develop- ing countries, several of which are now perceived as competitors. At the national level, a number of countries are engaged in supporting and developing low-car- bon sectors in very different ways, as they attempt to manage the tensions of national competitive-ness, energy security, and climate change. The de-veloped countries, with their current technology leadership and much higher R&D investments, seek to further their innovation lead in low-car-bon technology over developing countries. At the same time, countries such as China, Brazil, South Africa, and India seek to become players by look-ing toward their large emerging markets for low-carbon technologies coupled with their low-cost manufacturing and perhaps frugal innovation capabilities. 25 76 GLOBELICS THEMATIC REVIEW
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Table 3. Key indicators in selected developed and developing countries Countries Per capita emissions Carbon-intensity of Per capita electricity Total emissions (d) (a) the economy (b) generation (c) United States 17.31 0.41 14.04 5,415.00 Germany 9.32 0.26 7.61 769.98 Japan 8.97 0.25 8.72 1,168.49 United Kingdom 7.78 0,21 6.08 493.21 South Africa 6.94 1.20 5.13 441.28 France 5.52 0.16 8.7 360.89 China 5.40 1.79 3.13 7,711.38 Brazil 1.99 0.35 2.65 398.19 Gabon 1.80 0.27 0.13 2.70 Indonesia 1.71 1.09 0.71 400.91 India 1.39 1.30 0.82 1,665.38 Sudan 0.33 0.35 0.14 14.40 Nigeria 0.30 0.30 0.97 47.50 Notes : The table shows 2010 data on: (a)CO 2 emission s per capita (tonnes CO 2 /capita) (b)CO 2 emissions/GDP (kg CO 2 /US dollar (2005 prices) (c)Generation in KWh, thousands (d)CO 2 emissions in million tonnes of CO 2 : reference approach. Sources: a, b, d: CO 2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion (2012 Edition), IEA, Paris; c: World Bank Development Indicators dataset for Per Capita GNI (market exchange rate) (2012). LOW-CARBON INNOVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 77
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Box 10. Technological trajectories in the car industry Currently, the car industry relies on fossil fuel-based internal combustion engines (ICEs) and is one of the major contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions. Driven by policy action and indica-tions toward future action, the sector is witness-ing efforts toward low-carbon innovation, with several more sustainable alternative approaches for the replacement of the present ICE ecosystem.
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