Pew Research Center found that 97% of teens 12-17 have played video games, w/ 50% doing so yesterday. 86% play on consoles, 76% on PCs, and 60% on portable systems. Among adults 18 and older, 53% play video games, and 21% play daily. Video Games as Spectator Sport In 2014, a fish called Grayson played Pokémon Red and Blue on a GameBoy and over 22,000 people watched on Twitch. Legal problems come in when licensed songs from video games are played. But the games themselves can be played on a stream. In May 2014, Amazon bought Twitch for $970 million. The service was founded in 2011 as Justin.TV and has now 1000 million unique viewers per month, 1.7 million broadcasters. Diversity and Representation in Video Games A 2015 study by Nielsen found that LGBT and Asian Americans feel they have limited opportunities to create game characters who represent them in real life. Among LGBT gamers, 65% don't feel that all sexual orientations have opportunity for representation, while only 28% of heterosexual gamers feel that there is lack of opportunity. Asian Americans are more likely to be excluded. LGBT consumers are more likely to play video games more than heterosexuals while Asian Americans are more likely to game than all other ethnicities.
Games like the Saint Rows series allow for customization of characters. On the other hand, the game Rust only had male avatars until a patch in Spring 2016. The Internet and Society Stewart Brand, author of Whole Earth Catalog, said that users of computer soon found how to use computers for their own purposes. Thus, control was important. But critics point out that the media giants that controlled older media also produce much on content available on Internet. The Hacker Ethic As young men, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak built "blue boxes" that helped them bypass AT&T control system. Their attitude embodied the hacker ethic. Said ethic is summed up in 1984's Hackers by Steven Levy. The Notion of Cyberspace Cyberspace is used to describe Internet and the interactions that take place there. Cybernetics has been in use since 1948 and refers to science of communication and control theory. Sci-Fi writer William Gibson is credited w/ coining cyberspace in his 1984 novel Neuromancer, even though Gibson said it in 1982. Broadening Our Online World Larry Tesler helped develop the idea of computer communities at the XeroxPARC Research Center and at Apple Computer. Is It Really a World Wide Web Worldwide actually refers to only 43% of the population that has access to the Internet. In developing countries, the number can be 35%, compared to 82% in developed nations. Africa has lowest percentage of people online w/ only 20.7% but that's a 111% increase from 2010 (due to mobile phones). The Digital Divide Pew shows that access to speed broadband connections go up as people's education and income levels increase in the United States.