306 thus this research is done to discover what can

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nurses and nurse leaders today” (Kalisch, 2006, p. 306). Thus, this research is done to discover what can change nursing practice to ensure better patient outcomes. Method The authors of Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice defines grounded theory as "different types of qualitative research method in that it goes beyond the traditional methods of phenomenology and ethnography, which focus on the
Qualitative Research Critique 4 process that is at the heart of the inquiry" (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2014, p.154). According to Glaser and Strauss (1967), grounded theory method was “developed originally as a sociologist’s tool” and Denzin and Lincoln (1998) add “researchers…use the grounded theory method when they are interested in social process from the perspective of human interactions…” (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2014, p. 116). Kalisch analyzed social process among nurses who are divided by job title into focus groups. She properly use grounded theory method to discover the phenomenon and collect data for the stated purpose. However, it is unclear if the study followed the guidelines of the grounded theory method. Sampling In Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice , LoBiondo-Wood and Haber (2014) explains “In qualitative studies, the researchers are usually looking for purposive sampling…a particular kind of person who can illuminate the phenomenon they want to study” (p. 100). The reader knows Kalisch (2006) purpose is about the views of nurses on medical-surgical units, and the author does interviews with “A total of 107 registered nurses, 15 licensed practical nurses, and 51 nursing assistants, working in medical-surgical patient care units…” from two different hospitals (Kalisch, 2006, p. 306). These nurses live the experiences of “missed nursing care” and can shed light on why care is missed on medical-surgical unit; therefore, they are an appropriate sample for this phenomenon of study. However, Kalisch could made a stronger sample for the grounded theory method if she included the words "purposive sample" , explained why this group of nursing staff
Qualitative Research Critique 5 was chosen, and given details about the inclusion/exclusion criteria for the sample (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2014, p. 100). Data Collection The description of data collection lacks details in Kalisch (2006). The reader knows the author interviewed “25 focus groups” using “semistructured design and each interview “lasted 90-120 minutes” and the interviewees “were asked to commit to confidentiality” (Kalisch, 2006, p. 306-7). The data collection did include human experience which was the nursing staff. Though the author states asking the interviewees to “commit to confidentiality", but this is not enough to protect them from disclosure . In addition, data saturation isn't confirmed and little known about the data collection process. The author should have stated during the interviews “nothing new is emerging” (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2014, p. 101).

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