Buffer: -Substances that minimize the pH change of a solution by acting as reservoirs for H+a)Explain what would happen to the pH of water with the addition of acid or base ?-The pH of water would significantly increase or significantly decreaseb)Explain what would happen to the pH of a buffer with the addition of acid or base ?-The pH of a buffer would increase of decrease slightlyc)Why are buffers important to cells ?-Buffers protect cells from large swings in pH-Even a slight change in pH can be harmful because the chemical processes of the cell are very sensitive to the concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions. Chapter 4 1. What are organic molecules ?
2. Review the variations that can occur in hydrocarbons. For example, compare butane with benzene on the following points: 3. What is an isomer ? 1.Structural Isomers-Differ in the covalent arrangement of the atoms2.Cis-Trans Isomers-Same = covalent arrangement-Different = arrangement about a double bond3. Enantiomers
-Differ by spatial arrangement (where things are) around an asymmetric carbon ( a carbon with 4 things attached to it), resulting in molecules that are mirror images, like left and right hands (L and D)b)Give examples of how isomerization alters biological activity of an organic molecule-Altering the arrangement of atoms can drastically change the properties of the molecule-EXAMPLE-Two enantiomers of a drug may not be equally effective, as in the case for ibuprofen and albuterol (asthma medication)4. Draw each of thefollowing functional groups and address the questionsbelowHydroxylCarbonyl (both ketones and aldehydes)Carboxyl
AminoSulfhydrylPhosphateMethyla)Discuss the properties of the functional group (polar, ionizes, acidic, basic, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, etc. ) Hydroxyl: -Polar-Typically does not ionize-HydrophilicCarbonyl (both ketones and aldehydes):-Polar-Typically does not ionize
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