Buffer Substances that minimize the pH change of a solution by acting as

Buffer substances that minimize the ph change of a

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Buffer: -Substances that minimize the pH change of a solution by acting as reservoirs for H+a)Explain what would happen to the pH of water with the addition of acid or base ?-The pH of water would significantly increase or significantly decreaseb)Explain what would happen to the pH of a buffer with the addition of acid or base ?-The pH of a buffer would increase of decrease slightlyc)Why are buffers important to cells ?-Buffers protect cells from large swings in pH-Even a slight change in pH can be harmful because the chemical processes of the cell are very sensitive to the concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions. Chapter 4 1. What are organic molecules ?
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2. Review the variations that can occur in hydrocarbons. For example, compare butane with benzene on the following points: 3. What is an isomer ? 1.Structural Isomers-Differ in the covalent arrangement of the atoms2.Cis-Trans Isomers-Same = covalent arrangement-Different = arrangement about a double bond3. Enantiomers
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-Differ by spatial arrangement (where things are) around an asymmetric carbon ( a carbon with 4 things attached to it), resulting in molecules that are mirror images, like left and right hands (L and D)b)Give examples of how isomerization alters biological activity of an organic molecule-Altering the arrangement of atoms can drastically change the properties of the molecule-EXAMPLE-Two enantiomers of a drug may not be equally effective, as in the case for ibuprofen and albuterol (asthma medication)4. Draw each of thefollowing functional groups and address the questionsbelowHydroxylCarbonyl (both ketones and aldehydes)Carboxyl
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AminoSulfhydrylPhosphateMethyla)Discuss the properties of the functional group (polar, ionizes, acidic, basic, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, etc. ) Hydroxyl: -Polar-Typically does not ionize-HydrophilicCarbonyl (both ketones and aldehydes):-Polar-Typically does not ionize
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