o The formula for sucrose is C12H22O11 But there are hundreds of organic

O the formula for sucrose is c12h22o11 but there are

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o The formula for sucrose is C12H22O11. But there are hundreds of organic compounds that have this particular formulation for composition. It could be composed of C12(H2O)11 hence the name carbo for carbon and hydrate for the H2O. This is how the word carbohydrate came about A type of formulation: Cm with water n time Ex. C6H12O6, which is another kind of carbohydrate of a C6 variety. There are a large number of carbohydrate materials that meet this formulation o Sucrose is worth 4cal/g of material o Sucrose is composed of glucose and fructose, linked together by oxygen atom o Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides o Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of two monosaccharides Video 3: Our bodies use carbohydrates to create energy. This is an oxidation reaction overall. Photosynthesis by plants: energy from the sun with water and carbon dioxide makes O2 and carbohydrates Glucose molecules are consumed giving back water and CO2 in a cyclical reaction process. Glucose can also be converted to carbohydrates, longer chain molecules, Glucose is a C6 monosaccharide. Stereochemistry: the ups and down, the three-dimensional aspect of this chemistry. o When the OH group and the H on a given carbon atom are switched, we have a different sugar or a different feature of a given sugar. There are many different molecules that we call sugars. They are all carbohydrates in the general terminology. Video 4: Methane is in a tetrahedral structure
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Carbon has the capacity to bond with itself very effectively. As a consequence, chains of molecules can be put together. Glucose (C6H12O6): o OH groups in specific positions around the ring, CH2OH group, an oxygen in a ring of six o The up/down orientation of glucose determines that this structure is glucose o When you change the up/down orientation of OH group and hydrogen, it is no longer glucose Video 5: Humans can digest starch, but not cellulose; both of which are composed of glucose units Cellulose and starch is different in the bonding of the glucose molecules by oxygen Cows have a multifaceted stomach and they have the enzymes that break down cellulose into glucose The enzyme has a particular shape. The reactant molecule has a shape that is coordinated with the features of the enzyme. When they combine in a very rapid way, the enzyme then acts in such a fashion as to break the molecule apart Enzymes are made up of amino acids linked together into a protein chain Complete oxidation of glucose: C6H12O6 + 6O2 makes 6CO2 + 6H20 + energy. This is a balanced equation overall. Video 6: Sugar: any variations on glucose, fructose, and the disaccharide sucrose. Sucrose is made up of two different monosaccharides. Sucrose is a disaccharide. Sucrose is made of glucose (also called dextrose) and fructose. Glucose and fructose are 6 carbon sugar molecules The bond between glucose and fructose in sucrose can be broken by an enzyme into the two component parts of glucose and fructose. Now, instead of a disaccharide, we have two
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