ISS_225_Lec_2_Scientific_Method

The seven step method usually involves a combination

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The seven step method usually involves a combination of the following: 1. Observation 2. Formulation of a problem 3. Collection and classification of facts 4. Generalization 5. Formulation of a hypothesis 2
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ISS 225 Power, Authority, Exchange Scientific Method 6. Testing the hypothesis 7. Retesting and reformulating the theory See: for a good, precise discussion of the scientific method. III. Social Science and the Scientific Method: The Scientific Revolution helped generate the Enlightenment in the Western world. This was a revolution in the social and political order that resulted in the American and the French Revolutions of the eighteenth century. A key question was if everything in the natural world was knowable through science, why not " Dare to Know " about the social world of humans? Thus, by the middle of the nineteenth century, there developed the disciplines of a Social Science . However, because human beings are not as predictable and uniform as the natural sciences, there is a difficulty often in getting theories popularized or understood in the social sciences. Social scientists came to embrace the scientific method and adapt it to their own needs. Social sciences involve the systematic collection and analysis of data, but the method may vary. A. Steps in the Social Science Method 1. Define the Problem A definition of terms and a delineation of what social issue and dimension you are focusing on will enhance your objectivity, clarity of research design, and usually will save you work and time. 2. Review the Literature You must assume that others have worked in this area. You need to be aware of the research so that you can learn from it and not duplicate already duplicated experiments. Build upon past work. 3. Develop a Theoretical Framework and Formulate Hypotheses Scientific theory deals with the logical aspect of science - theory help us make sense of what we observe. How do you conceive of the central issue in your upcoming 3
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ISS 225 Power, Authority, Exchange Scientific Method research? What is your basic idea that has engaged you, for example, is your theory that "money equals power" or "alcoholism is hereditary?" Hypotheses are tentative statements about a relationship between observable facts or events. A hypothesis consists of an expression of the relationship between two or more variables. A hypothesis is testable though systematic research. Hypotheses are frequently expressed in a statement of the relationship between two or more variables: an independent (or presumed cause or explanation) and a dependent (or presumed effect) variable. Hypotheses are always tentative because they can only be verified after they have been tested empirically. The dependent variable is caused (depends) on the independent variable. It is what we are trying to explain. The dependent variable occurs later in time than the independent variable. Here are two examples of hypotheses: 1. One-parent family structure (I) is more likely to generate delinquency (D) than the two
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