T HESE CENTRALIZED APPLICATIONS ARE THEN ACCESSED OVER THE WIRELESS CONNECTION

T hese centralized applications are then accessed

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T HESE CENTRALIZED APPLICATIONS ARE THEN ACCESSED OVER THE WIRELESS CONNECTION BASED ON A THIN NATIVE CLIENT OR WEB BROWSER ON THE MOBILE DEVICES . V IRTUALIZATION IS A TECHNIQUE WHICH ALLOWS TO CREATES ABSTRACT LAYER OF SYSTEM RESOURCES AND HIDES THE COMPLEXITY OF HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE WORKING ENVIRONMENT . T HE VIRTUALIZATION PROVIDES HARDWARE INDEPENDENCE , ISOLATION OF GUEST OPERATING SYSTEM AND ENCAPSULATION OF ENTIRE VIRTUAL MACHINE GROUPED IN A SINGLE FILE . V IRTUALIZATION COMMONLY IMPLEMENTED WITH HYPERVISOR TECHNOLOGY , WHICH IS A SOFTWARE OR FIRMWARE ELEMENTS THAT CAN VIRTUALIZES SYSTEM RESOURCES . A. T ECHNOLOGICAL E VOLUTION T HE BIRTH OF THE INTERNET WAS HOWEVER , FORETOLD ABOUT TWO DECADES EARLIER WHEN J OHN M C C ARTHY , SPEAKING AT THE MIT C ENTENNIAL IN 1961 WAS QUOTED AS SAYING , “I F COMPUTERS OF THE KIND I HAVE ADVOCATED BECOME THE COMPUTERS OF THE FUTURE , THEN COMPUTING MAY SOMEDAY BE ORGANIZED AS A PUBLIC UTILITY JUST AS THE TELEPHONE SYSTEM IS A PUBLIC UTILITY ... T HE COMPUTER UTILITY COULD BECOME THE BASIS OF A NEW AND IMPORTANT INDUSTRY . L ITTLE DID HE KNOW THAT IT WASN T GOING TO BE VERY LONG BEFORE THIS DREAM OF HIS CAME TO REALITY . B Y THE 1970 S , MAINFRAME USERS SAW THE FIRST IMPLEMENTATION OF VIRTUALIZATION AND SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING , WHERE DIFFERENT USERS COULD USE THE RESOURCES OF A SINGLE MACHINE TO EXECUTE DIFFERENT PROCESSES CONCURRENTLY . B UT AS THE I NTERNET CONTINUED TO EXPAND , ORGANIZATIONS , RESEARCHERS AND ACADEMICIANS BEGAN TO GRAPPLE WITH CONCERNS RELATING TO THE HIGH COST OF COMPUTERS AT THE TIME AND ONLY SPARSELY INTERMITTENT COMPUTATIONAL NEEDS ; THEY COULD NOT JUSTIFY INVESTING AT HIGH COSTS IN A COMPUTER THAT WOULD BE IDLE FOR MOST OF THE TIME . T O ASSUAGE THESE CONCERNS , ENTREPRENEURS CAME UP WITH THE IDEA OF RENTING TIME , MAKING IT POSSIBLE FOR ORGANIZATIONS AND USERS TO EITHER OWN OR SUBSCRIBE TO COMPUTING RESOURCES AT MUCH LOWER COSTS . I T NOW BECAME POSSIBLE FOR USERS TO ACCESS LARGE - SCALE MAINFRAME COMPUTER SYSTEMS FROM THIN CLIENTS / TERMINAL MACHINES , OFTEN REFERRED TO AS STATIC TERMINALS ( SEE F IGURE 1) BECAUSE THEY WERE USED MAINLY FOR COMMUNICATIONS BUT HAD NO INTERNAL PROCESSING CAPABILITIES . T HIS IDEA HELPED TO ENHANCE THE EFFICIENCY OF EXPENSIVE MAINFRAME SYSTEMS AND REDUCE IDLE PERIODS BY ALLOWING MULTIPLE USERS TO SHARE BOTH THE PHYSICAL ACCESS TO THE COMPUTER FROM MULTIPLE TERMINALS AS WELL AS THE PROCESSING RESOURCES (CPU TIME ); THUS , ALLOWING FOR GREATER RETURNS ON INVESTMENT FOR COMPANIES THAT PRACTICED SUCH . I T IS THIS TECHNOLOGY THAT EVOLVED THROUGH VARIOUS NOMENCLATURES SUCH AS R EMOTE J OB E NTRY IN THE 1950 S , S HARED AND D EDICATED W EB H OSTING ( WHICH ARE FORMS OF V IRTUAL W EB H OSTING ) AROUND 1995 TO
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IUGC Operating System, Volume 1.1, 14th December 2019. Submitted to: Dr.Noman Islam 1997 [8,9], V IRTUAL P RIVATE S ERVER (VPS) H OSTING AROUND 1998 , G RID /U TILITY C OMPUTING TO BECOME C LOUD C OMPUTING (CC) ABOUT THREE DECADES LATER .
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