The cards come in isa and pci versions and are made

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The cards come in ISA and PCI versions and are made by companies like 3Com and LinkSys
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SUSHMA RAWAL 9 NIC The card implements the electronic circuitry required to communicate using a specific physical layer and data link layer standard such as Ethernet or token ring. This provides a base for a full network protocol stack, allowing communication among small groups of computers on the same LAN and large- scale network communications through routable protocols, such as IP.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 10 NIC There are four techniques used to transfer data, the NIC may use one or more of these techniques. Polling is where the microprocessor examines the status of the peripheral under program control. Programmed I/O is where the microprocessor alerts the designated peripheral by applying its address to the system's address bus. Interrupt-driven I/O is where the peripheral alerts the microprocessor that it's ready to transfer data. DMA is where an intelligent peripheral assumes control of the system bus to access memory directly. This removes load from the CPU but requires a separate processor on the card.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 11 NIC NIC may be an embedded component as part of a computer motherboard, a router, expansion card, printer interface or a USB device.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 12 NIC NICs can have one of five basic bus standards for internal connection to the PC: PCI, ISA, EISA, MCA, or PCMCIA
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SUSHMA RAWAL 13 NIC Network interface cards are either wired (LAN) or wireless. Most NICs use network drivers, which are computer programs that allow software applications to communicate with network hardware. The necessary drivers are usually integrated into the computer system
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SUSHMA RAWAL 14 Transmit P C I I/ F Tx FIFO Rx FIFO Tx/Rx Logic INTERRUPT LOGIC & REG Pkt Disc
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SUSHMA RAWAL 15 Transmission Network kernel indicates pkt ready.
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