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The Charismatic Leader provides a standard to which others can aspire, and become a source of sustained energy by: 1)ENVISIONING – by creating a vision, the leader provides a vehicle for people to develop commitment, a common goal around which people can rally, and a way for people to feel successful. How: Articulating a compelling vision, Setting high expectations (challenge must be worthy of pursuit), Modeling consistent behaviors2) ENERGIZING – leaders must direct generation of energy – motivation to act – among members of the organization. How: Demonstrating personal excitement, Expressing personal confidence, Seeking, finding, and using success3) ENABLING – leaders psychologically help people act or perform in the face of challenging goals. How: Expressing personal support, Empathizing, Expressing confidence in peopleBut being a charismatic leader is not enough to effect large-system change; it must be bolstered by Instrumental Leadership.Instrumental Leadership: focuses on the management of teams, structures, and managerial processes to create individual capabilities. This kind of leadership involves
three elements of behavior: structuring(re-orientations require detailed planning about who does what and when), controlling, and rewarding(and punishing).Further, as many organizations are too large and complex for any one executive and/or senior team to directly manage, responsibility for large-system change must be institutionalized throughout the management system. The leadership of strategic organization change must be pushed throughout the organization to maximize the probability that managers at all levels own and are involved in executing the change efforts and see the concrete benefits of making the change effect work. This can happen in the following three ways:1)The senior leadership team. Important factors: visible empowerment of the team, individual development of team members, composition of the senior team, team inducement of strategic anticipation, the senior team as a learning systema.A team is most successful when there is a perception of common fate. Individuals have to believe that the success of the team will, in the long run, be more salient to them than their individual short-run success.2)Broader senior management, extending leadership beyond executive team. Task is to make the new group feel like senior management and to motivate themto work as an extension of the senior team.a.Actions to make this new group feel like senior management include: rights of passage, senior groups (creating structures), participation in planning change (involvement in early diagnosis), intensive communication (open lines).3)Developing leadership throughout the organization.Strategic and anticipatory thinking about the leadership development process include: defining managerial competence, sourcing managerial talent, socialization into the organization’s social system, management education, career management, and seeding talent.