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Entertainment, professionalization, and commercialismoMasculinity and violenceoNationalism and chauvinismoGender inequities and homophobiaoRacism and racial discriminationoPhysical abilities and access to participationoClass dynamics and use of resourcesoMedia images and narrativesModern sports have seven characteristics that have not appeared together in the pastSport history has involved struggles over:oMeaning (what do sports and participation symbolize)oPurpose (to be fit and fair or to win and set records)oOrganization (what is “official” and who decides this)oConditions of participation (who can play when and where)oSponsorship (public, private, corporate, individual, etc.)The histories of sports are linked to struggles over political ideologies.
Sports history does not just happenoSports history has always depended on the actions of people as they construct physical activities in their livesoHistorical changes in sports have often occurred in connection with people’s visions of what sports could and should be likeHistory and the futureoSports history will forever emerge in connection with struggles related to the ideals that people use to organize sports in the present and envision them in the futureoTurning our visions into realities is a key basis for how we participate in social words. Sitting on the bench takes you out of the game.Sports SocializationSocializationoA process, in which an individual becomes a member of society or community.”oAssimilation of shared values, norms and behavioral patterns of the societyoPrerequisite of human development: socialization has a unifying task, personal development has a separational taskoMany social theories have something to tell about socialization, interaction between individualand community