Entertainment professionalization and commercialism o

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Entertainment, professionalization, and commercialism o Masculinity and violence o Nationalism and chauvinism o Gender inequities and homophobia o Racism and racial discrimination o Physical abilities and access to participation o Class dynamics and use of resources o Media images and narratives Modern sports have seven characteristics that have not appeared together in the past Sport history has involved struggles over: o Meaning (what do sports and participation symbolize) o Purpose (to be fit and fair or to win and set records) o Organization (what is “official” and who decides this) o Conditions of participation (who can play when and where) o Sponsorship (public, private, corporate, individual, etc.) The histories of sports are linked to struggles over political ideologies.
Sports history does not just happen o Sports history has always depended on the actions of people as they construct physical activities in their lives o Historical changes in sports have often occurred in connection with people’s visions of what sports could and should be like History and the future o Sports history will forever emerge in connection with struggles related to the ideals that people use to organize sports in the present and envision them in the future o Turning our visions into realities is a key basis for how we participate in social words. Sitting on the bench takes you out of the game. Sports Socialization Socialization o A process, in which an individual becomes a member of society or community.” o Assimilation of shared values, norms and behavioral patterns of the society o Prerequisite of human development: socialization has a unifying task, personal development has a separational task o Many social theories have something to tell about socialization, interaction between individual and community

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