increase the flow of air into the lungs Adrenal Cortex The adrenal cortex the

Increase the flow of air into the lungs adrenal

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increase the flow of air into the lungs Adrenal Cortex The adrenal cortex, the outer region of the adrenal gland secretes hormones called steroids. Steroids are lipid-soluble hormones made from cholesterol.
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The adrenal cortex secretes three steroids: glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and sex hormones. Glucocorticoids - As their name implies, the glucocorticoids affect carbohydrates. They convert amino acids into glucose by gluconeogenesis, thereby maintaining blood glucose levels between meals. This action ensures a steady supply of glucose for the brain and other cells. Glucocorticoids also affect protein and fat metabolism, burning both substances as fuel to increase energy production. The chief glucocorticoid is cortisol. Cortisol is a hormone that is secreted in greater amounts during times of stress. Control of Cortisol Secretion The secretion of cortisol involves the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and adrenal gland.The hypothalamus secretes a releasing hormone, which then stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH. ACTH, in turn, stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol. Through negative feedback control, the cortisol inhibits the further secretion of ACTH and additional cortisol. Mineralocorticoids - The chief mineralocorticoid is aldosterone. Aldosterone is often called the salt-retaining (NaCl) hormone. The primary target organ of aldosterone is the kidney where it acts to reabsorb sodium and water and eliminate potassium. Through its action on the kidney aldosterone plays an important role in the regulation of blood volume, blood pressure, and the concentration of electrolytes. In the absence of aldosterone, the body loses Na + and water, and both blood volume and blood pressure decline. Sex Hormones - The sex hormones—secreted in small amounts—include the female hormones, primarily estrogens, and male hormones, called androgens (primarily testosterone). The sex hormones of the ovaries usually mask the effects of the adrenal sex hormones. Pancreas The pancreas is a long, slender organ that lies transversely across the upper abdomen, extending from the curve of the duodenum to the spleen The pancreas functions as both an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland. (Its exocrine function is concerned with the digestion of food) The pancreas secretes at least five hormones; we are concerned primarily with two hormones: insulin and glucagon. (Pancreas, Insulin, Glucagon). The hormonesecreting cells of the pancreas are called the islets of Langerhans. The islets of Langerhans have several types of cells: the alpha cells, which secrete glucagon, and the beta cells, which secrete insulin. Both
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insulin and glucagon help regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
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