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SURVEILLANCE oSurveillance? What are uses of it? Purpose of surveillance?Disease surveillance is the ongoing systematic collection,analysis, interpretation, of health-related data essential to planning,implementation, and evaluation of public health practice, closely integrated with the timely dissemination of these data to the responsible prevention and control It is built on understanding of epidemiology - agent, host, environment, and the natural history of disease oGoal of health surveillance is to provide information that can be used for health action by public health personnel,
government leaders, and the public to guide public health policy and programs. oUSES OF SURVEILLANCE Estimate the magnitude of a problemDetermine geographic distributionDetect epidemics; define the problem Generate hypotheses; stimulate researchEvaluate control measures Monitor changes in infectious agents Detect changes in health practices Facilitate planningoPURPOSES OF SURVEILLANCE Assess public health statusDefine public health priorities Evaluate programs Stimulate research. Surveillance helps public health departments identify trends and usual disease patterns, set priorities for usingscarce resources, and develop and evaluate programs forcommonly occurring and universally occurring diseases or events.oData sources for surveillance Mortality data Morbidity data What is NNDS? Know about reporting to NNDS by each state to the CDC weekly. How would you use a case definition? KNow the types ofsurveillance systems and examples of each. Know about doing an investigation - steps/when to investigate. oNNDSNational notifiable disease surveillance system oReporting to NNDS Physicians, labs, or other health care providers are required to reportEach state determines which diseases and conditions arereportable in their jurisdiction, and they decide which ones from the list of nationally notifiable diseases or conditions they will report for their state. CDC and CSTE collaborate closely on the national list. It is revised yearly and therefore varies somewhat from year to year. States typically fully cooperate with national disease reporting because CDC publishes the provisional data weekly in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, or MMWR, and the final data annually in the MMWR Annual Summary of Notifiable Diseases. MMWRdisplays the datain complex tables and in maps, such as the one displayed
on this slide. This allows each state to know how their population’s health compares with other states.Regulation can vary by stateLegally reportable diseases - data is electronically sent each week to the CDCoCase definitionEssential for establishing a uniform, standardized method of reporting and monitoring diseases Understanding of the data being collectedReducing the chance that different criteria will be used for reporting similar cases of a disease Standard case definitions are NOT there to provide ease of copying similar results quickly and efficiently from one case to the next.