Fruths in this categotlr are concerned rvith

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fruths in this categotlr 'are concerned rvith 'necessanr tnrths, ltthich coulcl not be othenttise ,, than they are'. A conclusion derir,ed Iiorn such a truth is as valicl as I. the tmth from r,r'hich it is der-ived. '',.' Third are truths which nlan discovers b,v the exercise of 'practical re?son'. These are tnrths, Aquin:rs tells us, that are conc.ernecl rvith ''ftatters into rvhich human actions enter. It is here that \,ve see the "teleological influence offuistotle. \Arithin e\zeryt.hins is atr 'inclination' 'to seek its orvn presenlation. Man, as part of the creal.ed r,vorld, shares -,this inclination. The achievenrent of this inclinatiort is furthered bv ' man having clther inclinations, ones that he shares with other auimals. 'iiFhese inclinations are the instincts rtith rvhich natttr-e has irnbttecl all "animals, for exarnple to cclprtlate and to rear ofl"spring. Bttt' savs *uinas, man has certain inclinatiotrs peculiat"to hirnself. FIe alone ',,Hhs,.an inclination to knou' the truth about God, and to live in socie$. i.-'-' lFrom the fact that man is inclined to these general encls, nran is 'ldble to knon', by the exercise of practical reason, thathe should rtot,, rfof,exarnple, give offence to those rvith lt'hortt he tnust associate, 'nBince offence woulcl r"isk strife, iltrd strife r,t'otrld disturb the peace 'oinbcessary to rnan to li\re, as is his natural encl, in society. h{atters ./ -ffiat man can discover b,v the exercise of practical reason Aqttinas l-terms the etertral law. :'i!'';,For Aquinas, natural lan' consists of par-ticipation by nran in the ,, ,eternal law. It is not altoge ther clear, it must be said, how Aquinas l"djstingtrishes behveen eternzrl larv and natut-al laH'. In places the ttvo tlterms appear to be trsed indiscriminatelv. Perhaps ule shotrld ;-Understand trim to rnean that natural lart'is that rvhich requires Inen ,"to adhere to eter-nal law. But as his exposition unfolds it is natural
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I 68 Chapter S lt stands to reason larv thar he treats as containing the pracepts ttrat rnen shoulci follow. To cliscover how man's uffairs shorilci be regulatectr it is necess ary, Aquinas saicl, to proceeol, by the exercise of huinan reasorr, frorn the first principles of.natural law, to other more par-ticular dispositions. TLre first principles of natural law are inimutable, etetrnal, and binding on ali mankincl. But wnren we so frorn the general to tlae p;irticular we may find that rhe .orrrltr.rsions reJched do not llecessarily have the same ttniverszrl validity. For example, if we dech-rce frotn .rh. principle that man shourld live at peace with his f.ellorvs, the principie that debts shoulcl be repaid., we flpd that: ,This conclusion holds in ,h: majority of cases. But it could happen in :some particuiar case that it would be injurious, ancl tperefore irrational, t-o repay a debt; if, for instance,"the ,rrorr.y repaid were lrsed to make-w3r against one's own coun try.
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