Which of the following would be a valid classification a Trichonomia a group

Which of the following would be a valid

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30. Which of the following would be a valid classification? a.Trichonomia, a group that includes Tapirs, Rhinoceroses, Horses, Cetaceans, Hippopotamuses, Pigs, and Ruminants b.Ceratoponth, a group that includes Ruminants and Rhinoceroses c.Relidactyla, a group that includes Ruminants, Hippopotamuses and Pigs d.Prevax, a group that includes Pigs, Ruminants and Horses
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31. Using a parsimony criterion and the following data matrix, select the phylogeny that is the best hypothesis of relationships among the species. Character 1 Character 2 Character 3 Character 4 Character 5 Character 6 Character 7 Species A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Species B 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Species C 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 Species D 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 Species E 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 Species F 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 32. Which of the above characters is a synapomorphy for the group made up of Species C, D, E and F? 33. Which of the above characters is a symplesiomorphyfor the group made up of Species B, C, D, E and F? 34. On the best phylogenyabove, which characters exhibit homoplasy? (mark all that apply) 35. We can include extinct species on phylogenies, but our data sets for them are more limited because there is little or no DNA evidence for most of theses species. a.True b.False 36. Which of the following is the best example of a vestigial trait?
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37. In class we discussed how a better understanding of phylogenetics helped to inform our understanding of the evolution of squamate (lizard and snake) venom. Which statement below best reflects our new understanding of this characteristic? a. It was once thought that venom in snakes and lizards was derived from a common lepidomorph ancestor, but once researchers realized that tuataras are only distant relatives of lizards, the most commonly accepted hypothesis is that of separate origin of venom in snakes and lizards. b. Other lepidosaurs such as the mosasaurs were thought to be long extinct. However, extant species were discovered in the 1950’s and an examination of their salivary glands revealed similarities to both lizard and snake venoms. This led researchers to hypothesize a much more ancient, homologous origin for venom in this group. c. Researchers once thought that the venom of snakes and the venom of lizards such as the Gila monster was derived independently and thus a convergent trait. When a better resolve phylogeny became available researchers realized that the poisonous lizards are close relatives of the snakes and even discovered poisonous venom in other closely related groups such as the monitor lizards. They now think that venom in these groups is a homologous trait.
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