Human understand this sequence compare to Cicero 4 Divine law fills in the gaps

Human understand this sequence compare to cicero 4

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3. Human (understand this sequence; compare to Cicero) 4. Divine law fills in the gaps in our knowledge and judges what human law can’t reach (motives, internal attitudes) On Kingship: Be able to compare to Aristotle (especially teleological assumptions) he thinks that man's need to live together is based on the need for self-sufficiency Why is it wrong to overthrow a tyrant? Tyrants tend to invite their own demise; to overthrow a mild tyrant could bring about a horrible one; small tyranny is insufferable, but choose your battles believes there should be some sort of limitations on the king to prevent tyranny Role of a king in shepherding the common good (compare to Machiavelli) If the rulership serves the common good, he is good; if he serves himself, he is wrong Ends of the state subordinated to ends of the church: politics has its own rightful role, but it can’t save your soul (compare to Augustine and Cicero) He believes we are here to live the good life. He believes that the end for the individual is higher than the self (unlike Aristotle). Politics is not the highest good/end; it is meant to lead you to the highest good/end. ("spiritual ends must be distinguished from earthly things") Machiavelli: Emphasis on “what works” over “what’s best” Emphasis on history over theory he thinks politics is about being wealthy/acquired or born into this life. In hereditary situations, just keep up with the times/adapt Virtue/prowess vs. Fortune/fate Cruelty used well: sometimes it is necessary to engage in dirty politics, but there are still guidelines for the best way to do it (does it promote stability and glory?) Glory (personal and political) as the highest objective of the prince Compare comments on common good to Aquinas Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau: be able to describe & compare/contrast: States of nature o Assumptions about human beings/human nature, especially: o Reasonable or passion-driven? o Good, bad, or indifferent? o Equal, but in what way? Social contracts (how are they described and why?) Ideal form of government Hobbes: because he was so pessimistic, he thinks that absolute monarchy is the only way to
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control human cruel impulses as mentioned in Leviathan. Doesn't believe the people have right to rebel. Social Contract (Hobbes): People are naturally selfish, aggressive, fearful, untrustworthy, brutish Supports Authoritarian Gov't o Politics was instituted for security against violent death Locke: the state of nature is so brutal that we must have a social contract to assure peace; he believes in one sovereign (a king/monarchy) Social Contract (Locke): People are naturally rationale, aware of natural law, sociable, economic o Politics was instituted to protect natural rights and property rights Rousseau: believed you should give up your rights to a "whole community"; believed in direct democracy; everyone decides on the rules for the will of the people.
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