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performance measures should minimize both contamination and deficiencyoReliability: describes the consistency of the results that the performance measure will deliverInterrater reliability: consistency of results when more than one person measures performanceTest-retest reliability: consistency of results over timeoAcceptability: whether or not a measure is valid and reliable, it must meet the practical standard of being acceptable to the people who use it
oSpecific feedback: a performance measure should specifically tell employees what is expected of them and how they can meet those expectationsSimple ranking: method of performance measurement that requires managers to rank employees in their group from the highest to the lowest performerForced-distribution method: method of performance measurement that assigns a certain percentage of employees to each category in a set of categoriesPaired-comparison method: method of performance measurement that compares each employee with each other employee to establish rankingsGraphic rating scale: method of performance measurement that lists attributes andprovides a rating scale for each attribute; the employer uses the scale to indicate the extent to which an employee displays each attributeMixed-standard scales: method of performance measurement that uses several statements describing each attribute to produce a final score for that attribute-Rating attributes is the most popular way to measure performance in organizations-One way to overcome the drawbacks of rating attributes is to assess employees’ behaviour
Critical-incident method: method of performance measurement based on managers’ records of specific examples of the employee behaving in ways that are either effective or ineffectiveBehaviourally anchored rating scale (BARS): method of performance measurement that rates behaviour in terms of a scale showing specific statements ofbehaviour that describe different levels of performanceBehavioural observation scale (BOS): a variation of BARS, which uses all behaviours necessary for effective performance to rate performance at a taskBehaviourism: individuals’ future behaviour is determined by their past experiences – specifically, the ways in which past behaviours have been reinforcedOrganizational behaviour modification (OBM): a plan for managing the behaviour of employees through a formal system of feedback and reinforcement, four components:1.Define a set of key behaviours necessary for job performance2.Use a measurement system to assess whether the employee exhibits the key behaviours3.Inform employees of the key behaviours4.Provide feedback and reinforcement based on employees’ behaviourManagement by objectives (MBO): a system in which people at each level of the organization set goals in a process that flows from top to bottom, so employees at alllevels are contributing to the organization’s overall goals; these goals become the standards for evaluating each employee’s performance, three components:1.