4. Place the atoms Cl, Si, and Ge in decreasing order of ionization energy. Explain your choice of order. Cl, Si, Ge Ionization energy increases from left to right and from bottom to top so I just ordered them according to which one was most right top. It gets harder to pull electrons from elements across a period because they want more and more to gain a few electrons and as you go up a family the pull on each individual electron increase because they are closer to the protons. 5. Place the atoms Br, In, and I in decreasing order of electronegativity. Explain your choice of order. Br, I, In Fluorine is the most electronegative substance so I ordered them from which was closest to fluorine to which one was most far away. 6. Explain why the periodic trends for metal and non-metal reactivity are opposites. Metal reactivity is characterized by a low electronegativity. Electronegativity decreases from right to left and as you go down because elements want to lose electrons and also since the electrons are farther from the nucleus. This means the left bottom would be more reactive metals. Non-metals want to gain electrons and this is measured through electron affinity. Electron affinity increases from left to right and top to bottom because these atoms need to fill their valence shells and the protons are closer to the valence shells. This means that the top right would be the most reactive non-metals. The difference is because metals want to lose electrons and non-metals want to gain electrons and this is measured by 2 different trends. 7. The following observations were made during a chemical reaction involving three unknown metals. Analyse the table here to help you answer the questions that follow:
a) List the metals in order from most reactive to least reactive. Y, X, Z b) Write a short statement justifying your answer to part (a). Y has the greatest and quickest reaction with the entire piece of metal having reacted in under a minute with hydrochloric acid. X was slower but still has bubbles form in response to vinegar and with a reaction time of 5 minutes for hydrochloric acid . Z has no reaction to vinegar and only bubbles were observed after 2 minutes to the hydrochloric acid. c) If all of the metals were located in the same period on the periodic table but in different groups, which would have the highest group number? Explain your answer with a short statement related to periodic trends. Z would have the highest group number since it would be the least reactive. Reactivity in metals is dictated by their electronegativity, how willing they are to give up a valence electron.
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