Builds up in the circulation bc there are

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builds up in the circulation b/c there are insufficient receptors to build the LDL and transfer the cholesterol into the cells; Homozygous---rare, don’t have LDL receptors so can’t take up cholesterol in cells; total cholesterol levels of 800-1000 mg/dl; can have heart attacks as teenagers; Heterozygous----more frequent, b/c it’s an autosomal co-dominant disorder; total cholesterol levels of 300-600 mg/dl; symptoms for heart disease can arise from 20s to 50s---Treatment---LDL phoresis---filter fat from patients’ blood stream HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA = can be due to genetic abnormalities (familial) or it can result from secondary causes like hormonal abnormalities associated w/ the pancreas, adrenal glands, and pituitary, or of diabetes mellitus or nephrosis; Diabetes Mellitus/Insulin Resistance-Metabolic Syndrome; Hormonal involvement-Thyroid dysfunction; severe hypertriglyceridemia can cause some acute or chronic pancreatitis; generally a result of an imbalance between synthesis and clearance of VLDL in the circulation and decreased HDL cholesterol; severe hypertriglyceridemia is caused by a deficiency in LDL or by a deficiency in apolipoprotein C-II; a decrease these keeps chylomicrons from being cleared and serum tryglycerides remain extremely elevated; Treatment: Diet modification, drug intervention---statin, niacin
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COMBINED HYPERLIPOPROTENEMIA = the presence of elevated levels of serum total cholesterol and triglycerides; can be familial; Type III-increased VLDL and chylomicrons as a result of defective catabolism of those particles; associated w/ the prescence of Apo E2/2; Treatment:Diet, Drugs-niacin, gemfibrozil (aids in lipase production), statins HYPOLIPOPROTEINEMIA = low levels of lipoproteins (2 forms--- hypoalphalipoproteinemia and hypolipoproteinemia); Hypoalphalipoproteinemia- decrease in HDL; genetic; acute transitory (physiological stress, infections, surgery); Tangier Disease---an extreme form of hypoalphalipoproteinemia associated w/ HDL as low as 1-2 mg/dl; Treatment: Niacin, estrogen replacement ELEVATED LIPOPROTEIN (A) = elevations in Lp(a) especially in conjunction w/ elevations of LDL increase the risk of CHD and CVD; Lp(a) is a variant of LDL that has an extra apilipoprotein called apo (a) that competes w/ plasminogen for fibrin binding sites – clots form along artery walls increasing plaque formation; Treatment: niacins, estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women 4. Calculate LDL cholesterol using the Friedwald calculation given appropriate data; identify possible sources of error. LDL = Cholesterol – HDL – (Trig/5) Invalid if Trig> 500 mg/dl 5. Describe the proper collection, processing and storage of a specimen for serum lipid and lipoprotein analysis.
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