Americans began to associate communism with being unpatriotic and disloyal. Reading Check Reading Check CHAPTER 14 World War I and Its Aftermath 473 Effects of World War I on the United States Developments in the War Effects on U.S. Interpreting Why did the destruction of European economies cause an industrial boom in the United States? World War I had profound effects on the United States. • Boom in U.S. economy; emergence of U.S. as world industrial leader • “Red Scare” in postwar U.S.; suspicion of immigrants • Internal migration in U.S., especially African American migration to Northern cities • Failure to join League of Nations • War-torn economies of Europe • Russian Revolution • Industrial demand of wartime • Sacrifices of wartime; disappointment with Versailles Peace Treaty
474 CHAPTER 14 World War I and Its Aftermath Terror in the Streets After the House of Morgan—a bank in New York City—was damaged by a bomb in 1920, Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer instituted raids on antigovernment activists and many immigrants, often violating their civil liberties in the process. Whom did Palmer appoint to coordinate these investigations? History Americans had long been suspicious of Communist ideas. Throughout the late 1800s, many Americans had accused immigrants of importing radical socialist and Communist ideas into the United States and blamed them for labor unrest and violence. Now Communists had seized control of an entire nation, and fears surged that they would try to incite revolutions elsewhere. These fears seemed to be confirmed in 1919, when the Soviet Union formed the Communist International — an organization for coordinating the activities of Communist parties in other countries. The Red Scare Begins As strikes erupted across the United States in 1919, the fear that Communists, or “reds,” as they were called, might seize power led to a nationwide panic known as the Red Scare. Seattle’s mayor, Ole Hanson, spoke for others when he condemned the leaders of the Seattle general strike as revolutionaries who wanted to “take posses- sion of our American government and try to dupli- cate the anarchy of Russia.” In April the postal service intercepted more than 30 parcels addressed to leading businesspeople and politicians that were triggered to explode when opened. In June eight bombs in eight cities exploded within minutes of one another, suggesting a nation- wide conspiracy. One of them damaged the home of United States Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer in Washington, D.C. Most people believed the bomb- ings were the work of Communists or other revolu- tionaries trying to destroy the American way of life. The Palmer Raids Declaring that a “blaze of revo- lution” was “burning up the foundations of society,” Palmer took action. He established a special division within the Justice Department, the General Intelligence Division, headed by J. Edgar Hoover.
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- Fall '16
- Robert Hassell
- World War I