Lee resolved that he could accomplish nothing more by

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Lee resolved that he could accomplish nothing more by fighting. He met Grant at the McLean House in Appomattox on April 9, 1865. The handsome, well-tailored Lee, the very epitome of Southern chiv- alry, asked Grant for terms. Reserving all political questions for his own decision, Lincoln had authorized Grant to treat only on purely mili- tary matters. Grant, though less impressive in his bearing than Lee, was equally chivalrous. He accepted Lee’s surrender, allowed 28,356 paroled U LYSSES S. G RANT (1822–1885) Born Hiram Ulysses Grant and nicknamed Sam Grant during his early military experience in Mexico after graduation from West Point in 1843, Ulysses S. Grant bounced back from setbacks all of his life. His heavy drink- ing prompted his resignation from the Army in 1854 to avoid court-martial. He failed in a number of civilian jobs and was able to regain a commission in 1861 as a colonel of a volunteer regiment from Illinois only with the help of a local Congressman. He suffered military reversals at Belmont, Missouri, in 1861 and was caught by surprise at Shiloh the following year. Yet he also gained fame for his capture of Forts Henry and Donelson and his great victories at Vicksburg, Chattanooga, and over Robert E. Lee in a masterful campaign that in effect won the war. His memoirs, which he wrote as he lay dying to provide money for his nearly destitute family, are a masterpiece and show him as a caring, thoughtful, and simple man who was also a determined military commander. He is one of America’s greatest generals. General Grant
THE CIVIL WAR, 1864–1865 297 Confederates to keep their horses and mules, furnished rations to the Army of Northern Virginia, and forbade the soldiers of the Army of the Potomac to cheer or fire salutes to celebrate the victory over their old antagonists. Johnston surrendered to Sherman on April 26. The last major trans-Mississippi force gave up the struggle on May 26, and the grim fighting was over. Dimensions of the War Viewing the war in its broadest context, a historian could fairly conclude that a determined general of the North had bested a legend- ary general of the South, probably the most brilliant tactician on either side, because the Union could bring to bear a decisive superiority in economic resources and manpower. Lee’s mastery of the art of warfare staved off defeat for four long years, but the outcome was never really in doubt. Grant and Lincoln held too many high cards; and during the last year of the war, the relations between the Union’s Commander in Chief and his General in Chief set an unexcelled example of civil- military coordination. This coordination was essential to prosecuting a multitheater war characterized by the slow, yet steady expansion of the area brought back under Federal control over the course of four years of struggle. ( See Map 34 .) In this costly war, the Union Army lost 138,154 men killed in battle. This figure seems large, but it is only slightly more than half the number (221,374) who died of other causes, principally disease, bringing the total Union dead to 359,528. Men wounded in action

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