○Was a member of the "Royal Society"•"On the Motion of the Heart and Blood"□Harvey was the first to prove and describe how circulation, the heart, and the circulatory system worked with his bookEspecially Galen's ideas on the blood○Rejected commonly held views of ancient Greeks•William Harvey (1578-1657)Impact on Philosophy"Cogito, ergo sum" or "I think, therefore I am"○"Discourse on Method"•"It is a machine created by God, the 'great' mathematician"God must have used reason and logic to create the universe○Natural Law, or God's Law, is reassuring ○Believed that, using reason, humans could understand the material world•Rene Descarte (1596-1650)English•Voltaire called him "the father of the Scientific Method"•Francis Bacon (1561-1626)French scientist and mathematician•"The heart has its reasons of which the reason knows nothing."Pascal respected and believed there was a place for religion in the New World○An argument for why one should live as if God exists, even though this cannot b proved or disproved through reasonWager>After DeathGod Exists No GodGod ExistsHeavenHellNo GodDead, don't careDead, don't carePascal's wager○Was trying, much like Descarte, to blend the new science with the old religion•Blaise Pascal (1625-1662)HY 102 Page 310
An Age of ReasonReason, natural law, progress•"Philosophes" or "Philosophers"○Centered in France•"Dare to know! Have the courage to use your own intelligence!" - Immanuel KantPopularized the ideas of the enlightenment (hype man)•Puts out literature for the common person•Bernard de FontenelleSomeone who knew him once said that Hobbes was "born into fear"Born the same year of the Spanish Armada, the story is that his mother was scared into premature labor ○A war of each against all□Used this as a reason why an absolute monarch was necessary to keep people from themselvesLife in this"State of Nature" was short, brutal, mean, nasty, and hard□Went back to a time before countries, governments, and societies, called the "State of Nature"Wrote "Leviathan", about the workings of the government○Hobbessupported Charles I and absolute monarchs during the war, believed people needed a strong rulerWas alive during the times of the English Civil War○Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)•His father supported Parliament during the English Civil War, influenced John's later modes of thinking○"Life, Liberty, and Property"□Rejected Absolutism, and Hobbes ideas on the "State of Nature", believed that even during this time without countries and government there were stillNatural Laws and Natural Rights, which every man was born withIf a government failed to protect the rights of the people, the people can form a new government□Believedgovernments were formed to protect these natural rightsWrote "Treatises on Government", which was very influential in the early US○John Locke (1632-1704)•Two EnglishmenExecutiveLegislativeJudicialInstead, power should be divided among three branches○Also believed in the development of forms of humane punishment○
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