Chapter One Rise of France, 1648-1688 (The Rise of the Great Powers 1648-1815)

However spain did not concluded peace with the dutch

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However, Spain did not concluded peace with the Dutch Republic. Eight Years' War or Dutch War Independence ended with the recognition of Netherlands as independent state from Habsburg rule. The Dutch became a major economic power in Europe because of their mercantile supremacy and strength of their financial institutions. New English Republic grew jealousy of Dutch's commercial success and issued the Navigation Ordinance of 1651. Dutch was forced to sign the treaty because they had lost the First Anglo Dutch War of 1652-55. German protestant princes increasingly gained power and this was expressed by their freedom from imperial control. The German emperor lost total control of his empire and this would lead to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. Peace of Westphalia allowed each state to have its own religion and the general acceptance was that all sates were independent and theoretically equal. And the concept of a untied Christendom and a religious slowly died with Westphalia. The Last Stage of the Franco Spanish War, 1648-1659 Cardinal Mazarin thought once free of the war in Germany, France could defeat Spain but this was delayed by the outbreak of the Fondes. However, Mazarin had calculated badly and the Spaniards recovered and invaded France (due to Fondes , series of Civil Wars in France). When the Fonde was over (1648-53), the pattern of French victories and Spanish defeats were repeated. Peace of the Pyrenees was signed and concluded Spain's long reign as the dominant European power. Peace treaty included an agreement for the marriage of Louis XIV to the Spanish Infanta, Maria Theresa to secure a claim to the Spanish succession.
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In the final stages of the Franco Spanish War, France fought alone except for the intervention of the English in 1657. Spain became diplomatically isolated through Mazarin's negotiation skill. German princes forced the newly crowned king of Romans, Leopold I, the son of Ferdinand III to not send military help to Spain (Capitulation) via French diplomacy. League of the Rhine forms to protect territorial settlement of Westphalia and princely liberties, this meant against the Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany, Ferdinand III. Swedish Supremacy in the North, 1648-1660 By the peace of Westphalia, Sweden had become a leading Baltic power. Swedish Baltic empire was created via military conquest against Denmark, Poland and Russia. Sweden had an almost monopoly of the trade in metals, grain and naval stores. Sweden also monopolized the copper production and had a successful arms industry and an army practicing revolutionary methods led by rulers and generals of geniuses. Russia was weak. Poland was to decline relentlessly and was consistently beaten by the Swedes. Denmark was the strongest out of the three but faced defeat by the Swedes. Sweden's main concern was the struggle of supremacy around the Baltic. And this was because of Denmark. Sweden's Baltic empire was incomplete and she herself was surrounded by several irreconcilable enemies.
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  • Fall '13
  • Smyth
  • Thirty Years' War, Louis XIV of France, House of Habsburg

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