High consideration was negatively related to performance ratings of the leader by his/her superior. B. University of Michigan Studies 1. Leadership studies were undertaken at the same time as those being done at Ohio State, with similar research objectives. They discovered two dimensions of leadership behavior — employee-oriented and production-oriented. 2. Employee-oriented leaders emphasized interpersonal relations. They took a personal interest in the needs of their employees and accepted individual differences among members. 3. The production-oriented leaders tended to emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job — group members were a means to that end. 4. Michigan researchers’ conclusions strongly favored the leaders who were employee oriented. Employee-oriented leaders were associated with higher group productivity and higher job satisfaction. 5. Production-oriented leaders tended to be associated with low group productivity and lower job satisfaction. C. The Managerial Grid 1. Blake and Mouton proposed a managerial grid based on the styles of “concern for people” and “concern for production,” which essentially represent the Ohio State dimensions of consideration and initiating structure or the Michigan dimensions of employee-oriented and production-oriented.