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A increased renal excretion of bicarbonate hco3 b

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a.Increased renal excretion of bicarbonate (HCO3−)b.Decreased urinary titratable acidc. Increased urine pHd. Increased renal excretion of ammonia (NH4+)6. Urea diffuses out of the __________ , and into the __________ .a.proximal tubule, distal tubuleb.proximal tubule, descending limb of the loop of Henlec.descending limb of the loop of Henle, ascending limb of the loop ofHenled. collecting duct, descending limb of the loop of Henlee. ascending limb of the loop of Henle, descending limb of the loop ofHenle7. In a person with normal kidneys and normal lungs who has chronicmetabolic acidosis, you would expect to find all of the following,compared with normal, except:a. Increased renal excretion of NH4Clb. Decreased urine Phc.Increased plasma HCO3− concentrationd. Decreased plasma PCo28. The ascending limb of the loop of Henle is __________ to water.a. Impermeableb.moderately permeablec.Permeable9. A 43-year-old man eats a meal consisting of 40 percent protein, 10percent fat, and 50 percent carbohydrate. Thirty minutes later theman feels the urge to defecate. Which reflex results in the urge todefecate when the duodenum is stretched?a. Enterogastricb. Duodenocolicc.Intestino-intestinald.Rectosphincteric
10. Which of these chemicals is able to help in compensating for metabolicacidosis?a. bicarbonate ionb.carbonic acidc.amino group ion and amino acid or proteind.sodium chloride11. Lipids are emulsified by ____________ and digested by______________. a. lipase; bile saltsb. amylase; lipasec. bile salts; lipased. pepsin; bile salts12. Stimulation of the internal anal sphincters by the sympatheticnervous system or stimulation of the external anal sphincter by thesomatic motor nervous system woulda. stimulate the defecation reflex.b. inhibit the defecation reflexc.stimulate mass movements.d.inhibit mass movements.13. Respiratory alkalosis would be indicated if blood pH is _____ andblood carbon dioxide levels are ______.a. high; highb. high; lowc.low; highd.low; low14. A 65-year-old man eats a healthy meal. Approximately 40 minuteslater the ileocecal sphincter relaxes and chyme moves into thececum. Gastric distention leads to relaxation of the ileocecalsphincter by way of which reflex?a. Enterogastricb. Gastroilealc.Gastrocolicd.Intestino-intestinale.Rectosphincteric15. Buffer systems do which of the following?a.consist of a weak acid plus a strong acidb.are not present in intracellular fluidc.increase the severity of pH changes in the body fluidsd. minimize pH changes in body fluids by converting stronger acids orbases into weaker acids or bases
16. All of these conditions could cause respiratory acidosis EXCEPTa.obstruction of the respiratory passagewaysb.Emphysemac. Hyperventilationd. Pneumonia17. A person who is hyperventilating mayaa.be compensating for respiratory alkalosisb.

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