Arousal mueller others 1983 zillmann 1989 tends to

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Arousal (Mueller & others, 1983; Zillmann, 1989) Tends to spill over One type of arousal energizes other behaviors Disinhibits In Bandura’s experiment The adult’s punching of the Bobo doll seemed to make outbursts legitimate and to lower the children’s inhibition Viewing violence primes the viewer for aggressive behavior
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By activating violence-related thoughts (Berkowitz, 1984; Bushman & Geen, 1990; Josephson, 1987) Listening to music with sexually violent lyrics seems to have a similar effect (Barongan & Hall, 1995; Johnson & others, 1995; Pritchard, 1998) Evoke imitation The children in Bandura’s experiments reenacted the specific behaviors they had witnessed Prosocial behavior Positive, constructive, helpful social behavior, the opposite of antisocial behavior TV modeling of prosocial behavior should be socially beneficial o Suicide (Phillips, 1977) Suicide stories appear to elicit additional which are disguised as auto suicides o Homicide What sort of media-depicted homicide would be modeled? Rewarded Made exciting Perceived as real Culturally justified What is shown on TV that fits these criteria? Heavyweight prizefighting Across U.S., homicide rates increased by 12.5% following highly publicized prize fights The more publicized the fight the greater the increase in the rate The relationship between prize-fight and homicide rate persisted after statistically controlling for day of week, seasons, and other extraneous variables Hypothesis Prize fighting triggers an increase in gambling, which in turn provokes anger, fighting, and murder However, increased homicide rate did not occur following the Super Bowl Therefore, not supported Prize fight merely precipitated a murder that would have occurred anyway, even in the absence of the prize fight Found no evidence of any dip in homicides soon after the peak Therefore, not supported
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Social learning / modeling hypothesis Was there victim modeling? Is a person more likely to aggress against a target victim if his target is similar to the victim? This hypothesis was supported White-loser prize fights are followed by significant increases in young, white male homicides Black-loser prize fights do not seem to trigger young, white male homicides Black-loser prize fights are followed by significant increases in young, Black male homicides White-loser prize fights do not trigger significant increases in Black male homicides o Television’s effects on thinking Desensitization Viewing violence causes individuals to be used to and thus less influenced by violence After witnessing thousands of acts of cruelty similar emotional numbing Measured the physiological arousal of boys who watched a brutal boxing match (Cline & others, 1973) Compared with boys who watched little television The responses of those who watched habitually were more a shrug than a concern Viewing such slasher films breeds a more blasé reaction
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  • Fall '16
  • Relational aggression, Bushman,  Berkowitz

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