BIOL-201-OLD-EXAM-WITH-ANSWERS-2-1.pdf

Much greater number of species relative to bacteria

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Much greater number of species relative to bacteria, perhaps a greater diversity of specialized decomposition enzymes. Not as dependent as bacteria on immediate proximity of water for metabolism, during decommission and therefore can decay relatively dry substrates. 71. ‘Dry rot’ refers to decomposition of wood in a dry environment by certain fungi. Outline two distinctive features of these fungi that allow them to achieve this process? (2012) Translocate water and nutrients along mycelium from hyphae that are in contact with moist areas to hyphae that are actively decomposing wood Certain dry rot fungi can synthesize substantial water as a byproduct of glycolysis Dry rot fungi can synthesize specialized wood decaying enzymes. 72. The biology of the kingdom fungi displays extraordinarily complexity relative to other eukaryotic kingdoms. Make a list of the five strongest points you can think of to support this statement, and explain reasoning (2011, 2008, 2007) Very diverse o Terrestrial and aquatic o Saprobes, parasitic, symbiotic o Mostly aerobic but some anaerobic Range of catabolic (energy yielding) enzymes Evolved in more niches than bacteria Hyphae allow for rapid growth, intimate contact with environment, and interconnected hot spots Can go through sexual and sexual reproduction stages at stress. 73. A typical mushroom can produce half a million spores per minute for several days. Suggest two reasons why fungi produce so many spores. (2011) Only a small amount of spores reach adulthood Does not require a lot of energy to produce or time (little investment) 74. The diagram illustrates the basic features of the life cycle of a fungus that typically grows on decaying bread. Name this type of reproduction, label the grew boxes, indicate where plasogamy and karyogamy occur and describe the ecological context where this occurs. (2011). Zygotic meiosis Cytoplasmic fission takes place after meiosis and nuclear fission stage takes place right before producing zygote Stimulated by the onset of a harsh environment 75. What is a saprophyte. Are the majority of fungi saprophytes? Explain. (2005) Organisms that lives on dead or decaying matter Yes, they secrete enzymes outside their body to break down macro molecules which they can then absorb through their pores They are decomposers, the provide nutrients to ecosystem by consuming dead organic matter and recycling it back into the environment 76. Fungi in the phylum Ascomycota are said to be dependent on the monokaryon. Explain. (2005). 77. The primary life cycle of most fungi is __. The name of the phylum which is the exception is __. (2005) Zygotic meiosis, blastacladiomycetes 78. The dikaryon of the fungi basidomycota is quite different form that in ascomycota. Explain. (2005) Ascomycota spend most of their lifecycle in the haploid stage where nucleus and dikaryon are already formed, whereas basidos spends most in dikaryotic stage with cytoplasm fused but nucleus isn’t 79. A fairy ring of mushrooms is a common site on flat uniform ground. Why do they form? (2005)
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  • Fall '08
  • GROGAN,AARSSEN
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