advanced practice nursing. One outcome of the national DNP discussion is that APN organizations have promulgated practice competencies for doctorally prepared APNs (e.g., ACNM, 2011c ; NACNS, 2009b ) or have proposed a practice doctorate, even though it may not be the DNP ( AANA, 2007 ). The National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (2012) now has one set of core competencies for NPs. Organizational positions on doctoral education are briefly explored in the discussion of APN organizations (see later). Readers can consult Chapters 14 through 18 and are urged to visit stakeholder organizations' websites for the history and up to date information on organizational responses to AACN's DNP position paper ( AACN, 2004 ) and the DNP Essentials ( AACN, 2006 ). Although not a conceptual model per se, the AACN's publication, DNP Essentials (2006) addresses concepts and content that are now evident in many other documents that address standards of APN practice and education. The fact that Essential VIII affirms a set of common competencies across APN roles is an important contribution to conceptual clarity about advanced practice in the United States. Because these Essentials, with the exception of Essential VIII, are intended to address DNP preparation for any nursing role, its contribution to conceptual clarity regarding advanced practice nursing specifically is limited. Eventually, the evolution of the DNP may lead to more conceptual clarity about advanced practice nursing and the role of APNs. However, it is possible that the rapid expansion of this degree may contribute to less clarity in the short term about the nature of advanced nursing practice and the centrality of direct care of patients to APN work, particularly because the DNP will prepare people for other, nonclinical nursing roles. In the next section, in addition to discussing the organizations' conceptualizations of APN practice, the extent to which their responses to the DNP proposal might influence conceptual clarity on advanced nursing practice is addressed. National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties The mission of the NONPF is to provide leadership in promoting quality NP education. Since 1990, NONPF has fulfilled this mission in many ways, including the development, validation,
and promulgation of NP competencies. As of 2012, there is only one set of NP core competencies in use ( NONPF, 2012 ); the 2002 and 2006 competencies are available on the website but are no longer active. A brief history of the development of competencies for NPs is presented, in part because their development has influenced other APN models. In 1990, NONPF published a set of domains and core competencies for primary care NPs based on Benner's (1984) domains of expert nursing practice and the results of Brykczynski's (1989) study of the use of these domains by primary care NPs ( Price et al., 1992 ; Zimmer et al., 1990 ). Within each domain were a number of specific competencies. Until the 2011 competencies were published, these validated domains and core competencies served as a framework for primary care NP education and practice.
- Winter '17
- Nursing, advanced practice nursing