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shock, increase BP (neurogenic orthostatic or dialysis hypotension), with local anesthetics for prolonged effects•Bronchodilation: asthma, acute allergic reactions•Local: nasal and ophthalmic decongestants
Side/Adverse Effects•CV: HTN, tachycardia, palpitations, dysrhythmias, vasoconstriction, angina•CNS: H/A, tremors, nervousness, restlessness, dizziness, insomnia•Misc: n/v, cramping, sweating, mydriasis & blurred vision, hyperglycemia•Seizures, severe HTN, reflex bradycardia (with HTN), intracranial bleeding (from IC HTN), severe vasoconstriction with organ damage (necrosis, sloughing, gangrene, myocardial infarction, etc.)
Cautions & Contraindications•HTN, severe cardiac disease (CAD, angina, MI), cerebral and peripheral vascular disease, hyperthyroidism/thyrotoxicosis, BPH, diabetes
Adrenergic Agonist Drugs•epinephrine, pseudoephedrine (non-selective)•phenylephrine, midodrine (alpha-1)- vasoconstrictive, neurogenic hypotension•albuterol, terbutaline (beta-2), good vasodilators•clonidine, methyldopa (alpha-2 agonists)* alpha 2 effects the release of NE, reduces BP & HR, inhibits release of NE
Adrenergic Antagonists (Blockers)•Block the effects of sympathetic stimulation•Sympatholytics- cut sympathetic nervous system •Block alpha-1, beta, or both; selectively or not
Alpha-Blockers•Selectively block alpha-1, some are also beta-blockers•