wide range of not-for-profit organizations, professionals, and social agencies also use advertising to promote their causes to various target publics. Marketing management must make four important decisions when developing an advertising program: setting advertising objectives , setting the advertising budget , developing advertising strategy (message decisions and media decisions) , and evaluating advertising campaigns. Setting advertising objectives- these objectives should be based on past decisions about the target market, positioning and the marketing mix. An advertising objective is a specific communication task to be accomplished with a specific target audience during a specific period of time. They can be classified by purpose- inform, persuade or remind. I nformative advertising is used heavily when introducing a new product category. In this case, the objective is to build primary demand. Persuasive advertising becomes more important as competition increases (comparative advertising/attack advertising). Here, the company’s objective is to build selective 41
demand. Reminder advertising is important for mature products; it helps maintain customer relationships and keep consumers thinking about the product. Setting the advertisement budget- (dollars and other resources allocated to a product or a company advertising program). There are 4 common methods used: the affordable method , the percentage-of-sales method , the competitive-parity method , and the objective-and- task method . The affordable method is setting the promotion budget at the level management thinks the company can afford. Percentage-of-sales methods is setting the promotion budget at a certain percentage of current or forecasted sales or as a percentage of the unit sales price. Competitive- parity method is setting the promotion budget to match competitors’ outlays. Objective- and- task method is developing the promotion budget by (1) defining specific objectives, (2) determining the tasks that must be performed to achieve these objectives, and (3) estimating the costs of performing these tasks. Developing advertising strategy- the strategy in which the company accomplishes it advertising objectives. It consists of two major elements: creating advertising messages and selecting advertising media. Creating the advertisement message; Advertising can succeed only if it gains attention, engages consumers, and communicates well. Good advertising messages and content are especially important in today’s costly and cluttered advertising environment. To break through the clutter, many marketers have subscribed to a merging of advertising and entertainment, dubbed Madison & Vine- that represents the merging of advertising and entertainment in an effort to create new avenues for reaching consumers with more engaging messages. The aim of advertainment is to make ads themselves so entertaining, or so useful, that people want to watch them ie funny commercials. Another way is Branded entertainment (or brand integrations ) involves making the brand an inseparable part of some other form of entertainment. The most
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