By psychologists point out difficulties associated

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Introductory Psychology
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Chapter 6 / Exercise 8
Introductory Psychology
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by psychologists point out difficulties associated with attempts to foster creativity STUDY UNIT 11.1 The problem-solving process Study the sections: The problem solving cycle , Types of problems and Obstacles and aids to problem solving . CORE TOPICS TO STUDY The seven stages of the problem-solving cycle Types of problems ill-defined (or “ ill-structured” ’) and well-defined (or “ well-structured ”) problems Make sure you know what researchers mean by problem space and what the differences between algorithmic and heuristic approaches are The different heuristics used in problem solving means-ends analysis working forward working backward generate and test The concept of isomorphic problems Problems associated with problem representation The phenomenon of insight into problem solving. different explanations of insight Obstacles and aids to problem solving mental sets, entrenchment, fixation Luchins’s water-jar problems Negative and positive transfer Duncker’s radiation problem Embodied cognition and problem solving Incubation
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Introductory Psychology
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Chapter 6 / Exercise 8
Introductory Psychology
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PYC3703/1 67 CHAPTER 11: Problem solving and creativity QUESTIONS ON STUDY UNIT 11.1 Question 11.1 In CP it is assumed that we all have a good idea what we mean by the notion of problem solving . However, the notion is not that easy to pin down. Consider the act of searching for an object that was mislaid, and eventually finding it. Is this an example of problem solving? What exactly counts as problem solving and what should instead be seen as acts of perception, categorisation or reasoning? The question is not as trivial as it may seem at first because it is not at all clear that a sharp distinction can be drawn between these processes. So, here is your task: Explain how we know what counts as an instance of problem solving and what does not. Question 11.2 Give an example of a well-defined problem and an example of an ill-defined problem. Explain why you regard the one as well defined and the other as ill defined. Question 11.3 In the film called The Blair Witch Project the three protagonists get hopelessly lost in the forest. They try to find their way out using a river as their landmark. If they cross the river and end up at the river again they know that they have simply gone in a circle, and should try another route. Are the protagonists in this film using a heuristic or an algorithm to get out of the forest? Question 11.4 Chess players normally only think one or two moves ahead and typically select moves that they hope will improve their position. The heuristic underlying this strategy is called (1) means-ends analysis. (2) working forward. (3) working backward. (4) generate and test. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY Can you solve this puzzle?

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