villi (fuse together) When this disease starts is not very clear, usually shows up early in life
Potentially caused by viral infection or a stressful event such as surgery or childbirth Stool 粪便 is light coloured, bulky, smelly due to high fat content Poor absorption of iron, folic acid, calcium & protein Can be suspected in children if there is persistent diarrhea & failure to thrive; in adults, unexplained weight loss Other symptoms: rashes Confirmation of celiac disease can only be possible through: Endoscopic biopsy, where a sample is taken from the duodenum (beginning of small intestine) Blood test (for antibodies) Anti-tissue transglutaminase test Treatment: avoid gluten Corn or soy have no gluten 1 in 100 people affected to SOME degree Linked with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 淋巴瘤 (cancer) “Linked with” meaning, celiac patients have a somewhat higher risk of getting this disease Can result in osteoporosis (poor absorption of calcium) Can cause headaches, behavourial problems, neurological problems Theory that it may be linked to autism? From subjective evidence from parents of autistic children who are put on gluten-free diets (parents claim their children get better on this diet) SILENT CELIAC DISEASE 1 in 200 people No symptoms but positive biopsy & blood test Controversy if they should be on a gluten-free diet Argument is that they will develop celiac disease if they do not switch diet LATENT CELIAC DISEASE
No symptoms, but positive blood test & negative biopsy Gluten-free diet? Current opinion is no NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY 6x the population of celiac patients negative blood test + biopsy Bothered by gluten; gatric problems, headaches, rashes ~1 in 20 people may have this ° ° Lesson 2 (Adverse Food Reactions II) : ° Personal body chemistry con’t… Allergic reactions Symptoms may include: nausea, asthma, hives, blackening under the eyes, runny nose (rhinitis), eczema, flatulence & anaphylaxis (extreme) 全身性过敏反应 Anaphylaxis: totally collapse of circulatory system which can quickly lead to death Foods that are most likely to cause allergic reactions are milk, nuts, eggs, shellfish & fish (but because one is allergic to one doesn’t mean they are allergic to another) No one is allergic upon first exposure, prolonged exposure necessary for immune system to produce antibodies which then can manifest as allergy symptoms Allergic reaction incident with man eating canape (fish) Papain (meat tenderizer) can cause allergic reactions Peanut allergies can be severe Boy in MTL summer camp died because knife that was use don peanut butter was used to cut cheese, which he ate & did not have his EpiPen with him EpiPens need to be within immediate reach Reactions can be triggered by trace amounts Nocebo effects are very rare, but can also be possible Fear of food causes physical reaction to it
Hypoglycemia 低血糖 Symptoms: sweating, shaking, palpitations, confusion, lightheadedness Diagnosed by drinking sugar solution & having blood sugar levels monitored. A sudden drop in blood sugar after ½
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- Spring '11
- pH, Pesticide, E number, Food additive