e as actually existing systems The IS concept is often used as a device for

E as actually existing systems the is concept is

This preview shows page 40 - 41 out of 136 pages.

framework, i.e., as actually existing systems. The IS concept is often used as a device for focusing on resource creation through learning and innovation, rather than on the allocation of already existing, but scarce, resources. The concept is applied also to the selection and study of the entities driving the innovation processes (various routines, firms, government agencies, networks, markets, etc.). The perspective changes when developing coun-tries are studied. Innovation capabilities and inno-vation systems tend to be fragmented, with inno-vation being an activity in specific and sometimes isolated parts of the economy. Innovation processes are typically imitative and take the form of adap-tation rather than introducing new-to-the-world elements. This situation tends to shift the IS per-spective from systems description toward systems building. Innovation systems in high- income countries often emerge and evolve, if not entirely by them- selves, then to some extent behind the backs of private and public decision makers. In low-income countries, however, waiting for innovation systems to evolve may not be feasible. We want to shape, build, and nurture them through many different kinds of policy making. Building innovation sys-tems becomes part of a development strategy. In developing countries, there is a strong focus on the formation of innovation capabilities that are clearly needed at various levels (the individual, the firm, the government, the community, etc.) and in many sectors (agriculture, industry, service, government, etc.). Furthermore, there are many kinds of capabilities that are important in this context: technical, organisational, social, political, etc. It is obvious that such capability building re- quires that learning is organised and supported on a broad scale, at every level in the formal education system as well as in firms, communities, and fami- lies. To succeed in shifting attention toward inno- vation capabilities, it is necessary to view substan- tial parts of the development process as a learning process. We need to regard the process as broadly based since there are numerous sources of learn- ing. While in high-income countries with well- performing innovation systems it may be useful to focus the analysis on R&D systems and high tech- based innovation, this makes little sense in de- veloping countries. There we need to use broadly based innovation system analysis. In a Globelics context, the use of the LICS con- cept signals that learning, innovation, and com- petence building are considered core processes in development; additionally, building LICS may be a central part of a development strategy. To build LICS means to support the establishment of in- frastructures, institutions, and organisations that stimulate learning, innovation, and competence building processes on different levels of aggrega- tion. The LICS notion applies, however, not only to developing countries. It implies a partial rather than a total change of focus. Development is con-stituted by similar processes across the globe. It is an ongoing process with sources in learning al- 34 GLOBELICS THEMATIC REVIEW
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