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Adhd in offspring is due to purely genetic factors

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ADHD in offspring is due to purely genetic factors, with some studies suggesting that theheritability of ADHD is as high as 77 percentPRENATAL RISK FACTORSA number of recent reviews have described the prenatal environmental risk factors associatedwith ADHD and other disorders of childhoodThese reviews point convincingly to the fact that prenatal toxin exposure is related to mentalhealth problems in offspring, in particular to ADHD. The “toxins” include poor diet, exposure toantidepressants, antihypertensives, illicit drugs, alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, mercury, and lead,and pregnancy or delivery complications. More recently, increased risk for ADHD has beenlinked to exposure to manganese, organophosphates, and phthalates, which may be particularlyproblematic for boysPSYCHOSOCIAL RISK FACTORSPsychosocial risk factors include low socio-economic status, largefamily size, paternal criminality, poor maternal mental health, child maltreatment, foster care placement,and family dysfunctionBRAIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONSeveral studies have found that children with ADHD, compared to those without ADHD,generally have reduced brain size (3 to 8 percent reduction), abnormalities in themetabolism of dopamine and noradrenergic neurotransmitters, and abnormalities in thefunctioning of genes that regulate these neurotransmitter systems. Several magneticresonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown that ADHD is associated withabnormalities of the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia.The prefrontal cortex is an areaof the brain associated with executive functioning, while the basal ganglia is associatedwith higher motor control; learn- ing, memory and cognition; and emotional regulation.GENE–ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTIONSThe current state of knowledge in the field of psychopathology is that psychiatric disorders arenot the result of natureornurture, but rather the result of nature via nurture.Gene– environmentinteractions(G × E) describe “any phenotypic event” that is the result of an interaction betweengenes and the environment G × E is similar to thediathesis-stress perspectiveof disease, whichpostulates that environmental stressors. For example, Martel and colleagues (2011) found thathomozygosity for a certain type of dopamine receptor gene that is expressed in the prefrontalcortical regions of the brain was associated with greater risk for ADHD and ODD only whenchildren were also exposed to inconsistent parenting.An example of a gene–environment interaction in the area of ADHD was uncovered by Khan andcolleagues (2003), who found that ADHD symptoms were present in children with the 480-bp DAT 1 riskalleleonly whentheir mothers smoked during pregnancy.ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT
Treatments are required to address the different symptom clusters of ADHD and thedomains of impairment in both the child and his or her family. Comprehensiveassessments of the child’s development and academic, social, and family functioning are

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Term
Fall
Professor
Dr.ColinSCampbell
Tags
Abnormal Psychology, The Land, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Major depressive disorder, Antisocial personality disorder

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