CLEP Psychology Notes

Rats learned a maze of turns and responses and also

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Rats learned a maze of turns and responses and also the general idea and location of the reward Albert Bandura – Social Theory Referred to as Social Theory because the notion that we often learn from others, through observation and imitation of others Ivan Pavlov – Principal of Conditioning Conditioned dogs to salivate at the sound of bell o Originally dogs only salivated at the sight of food, he began to ring bell first, and dogs then began to salivate at the sound of the bell before the sight of food. Known as Classical Conditioning o Conditioned response is the recurring result of action that indicates a behavior is learned or “conditioned”, generally associated with a stimulus Example: salivating to a bell. Dogs normally do not salivate when they hear a bell. Systematic Desensitization – the application of classical conditioning procedure to alleviate extreme anxiety in which anxiety-producing stimuli are presented while the subject is in a relaxed state Unconditioned Stimulus, term for a stimulus that produces a response - even in the absence of conditioning
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o Salivation in Pavlov’s experiment was the unconditioned response Habituation – to get classical conditioning under way, a second stimulus, which is neutral must be present, and initially produces a minimal response of no particular interest. Behavior Modification - In behavior modification, behavior is changed by altering the rewards and punishments that are maintaining the behavior. Reflex – unlearned, automatic response that occurs in the presence of stimuli Mental and physical reactions to the environment around us Suicide – Women attempt more Men succeed more often, due to method o Women use pills, poison, men use guns and hanging o 8 th leading cause of death for men (more than 4x the rate in women) Insanity – legal term for diminished capacity, inability to tell right from wrong Not a psychological term, yet has to do with the pyschological functioning in a restricted sense Memory - cognitive ability to encode, store and retrieve information Encoding – process of putting information into memory Gathering and sorting memories into subtopics, subcategories based on time, emotion, people involved and place of event Storage – holding encoded information in memory until retrieval Retrieval – locating, removing and using information stored in ones memory Retrieval allows a person to use past experiences to make new decisions based on past Recognition – measure of retrieval of previously learned material Remembrance process that associates and compares old and new information Relearning – measure of memory when learning material for a second time, based on prior knowledge, used in educational settings Recall – measure of retrieval with few cues, information is quickly pulled from our database of stored memory Model of Memory – there is only one memory, but information can be processed at different levels, degrees or depths Sensory Memory – large amounts of memory for short periods of time Can be use with any of the senses
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Rats learned a maze of turns and responses and also the...

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