• <1% of patients (very small % of population) • Brought on by extreme stress or trauma • New identity may help coping • Difficult to test for • Rates of diagnosis spike after introducing to the general public • Symptoms vary in different cultures e.g., in India (only upon awakening from sleep) v. U.S. (can be while awake) Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Disorder marked by prolonged and unjustified periods of sadness, feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness, social withdrawal, and cognitive and physical sluggishness. • More than prolonged sadness... • Loss of interest or pleasure in most things • Depressed cognition (slow thinking) • Difficulty concentrating or making decisions • Changes in sleeping (insomnia or hypersomnia) • Changes in eating (weight loss or gain) • Feelings of worthlessness Leading cause of disability in US ages 14-44 Bipolar Disorder
Characterized by extreme highs and lows in mood, motivation, and energy. Contrast with “unipolar” depression. • About 1/3 as often as depression (2.6% of adults) • Episodes vary widely in frequency, length, and duration e.g., “rapid cyclers” (within hours) • Bipolar I and II (I is more severe, II is milder) • Mania can take several forms • Pressured speech (rapid talking) • Risky behavior (sexual, gambling, spending sprees) • Grandiosity • Decreased need for sleep Schizophrenia Disorders characterized by chronic and significant breaks from reality, a lack of integration of thoughts and emotions, and serious problems with attention and memory. Among the most debilitating of psychological conditions. 0.4% to 0.7% of the world population Men are more likely to have the disorder (7:5 ratio) and tend to develop it earlier in life than women. 1 st acute episode often in college Symptoms and Types of Schizophrenia Signs of first acute episode (positive symptoms): • Hallucinations - false perceptions of reality. Can be auditory or visual, e.g., hearing internal voices. • Delusions - false beliefs about reality e.g., a delusion of grandeur, believing he/she is Jesus, the Pope, the President. e.g., paranoid delusions, believing that someone is spying on them Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
The Preoperational Stage: Quantity and Numbers • The preoperational stage (spans ages two through seven years) is characterized by the understanding of symbols, pretend play, and mastery of the concept of conservation. • Conservation is the knowledge that the quantity or amount of an object is not related to the physical arrangement and appearance of that object. The Concrete Operational Stage: Using Logical Thought The concrete operational stage (spanning 7 to 11 years) is when children develop skills using and manipulating numbers, as well as logical thinking.
- Spring '14
- Social anxiety disorder