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Proximity-promoting behaviours are indiscriminate oRoots of attachment in place Example: expectations regarding responses to signals oNot attached at all –indiscriminately sending signals to anyone in the room –induces the other person to come near (proximity-promoting behaviours) –testing all the adults nearby –this could be where get ideas of what relationships with others are like –depends on if you believe that babies can make mental representations Phase II (3-6 months) oProximity-promoting behaviours now focus on special people Smile more at mom and dad –showing preference oNo attachment yet –does not turn to mom and dad when upset or frightened Separation anxiety –none Fear of strangers –not really scared of strangers Safe base –requires evidence that infant uses parent as a safe base –but at this point this parent is not viewed as a safety net Phase III (6-24 months) oFormation of genuine attachment oProximity seeking oSafe base behaviours oSeparation anxiety oFear of strangers oFormation of genuine attachment –safe base behaviours –running to mom or dad –now have separation anxiety and fear of strangers –build in intensity –a couple years to decrease again because at that point, toddlers can keep mental representations of safe base in mind –know that mom and dad will protect them Mom is usually the primary attachment figure –what about dad?–if have a choice between dad and stranger prefer dad –as long as child not frightened of stranger prefer either –if with mom and dad in normal situation no preference –if in a scary situation, mom is preferred –from evolutionary perspective this is funny because dad would protect you –but mom is emotional safe base –can predict attachment to dad by knowing how much time spent with infant in first couple of years –more time spent with baby, more attached baby is –Ross(1975)
found that the more diapers change, the more attached to dad –suggests person who engages with them the most will attach with Does attachment to mom still happen in communal rearing situation? –Efe(a communal rearing and attachment situation) –every woman will contribute to the care of every baby indiscriminately –babies do have indiscriminate attachment –but one special thing Efe does that ensures attachment to biological mom –babies sleep with biological mother –form attachment to mom despite all the communal rearing –Kibbutz-Israel –has elements of communal and parent raised babies- being fed by women not their mothers –being taken care of by everyone –most of the adult women around them safe bases –difference is that some are raised by their own parents –see stronger, more secure attachments to mom when parents raise One person to look for is better than no one Post-infancy attachment –attachment behaviours seem to go away quite a bit –evidence of attachment is engaging in proximity behaviours with caregiver –by ages 2-3attachment less behaviour –physical proximity no longer necessary –use of mental images, photographs, etc. to