35 v carbohydrates 36 carbohydrates carbohydrate an

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35 V. Carbohydrates 36
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Carbohydrates Carbohydrate an organic compound made up of sugar C:H:O ratio = 1:2:1 Ex: Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 Hydrophilic - dissolves in water Monomer Unit: monosaccharide Polymer Unit: polysaccharide 37 Carbohydrate Functions Carbohydrate Functions Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Plants, some animals, and other organisms also use carbohydrates for ____________________ purposes Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Simple sugars containing just one sugar unit ex. glucose, fructose, and galactose Main supply of ____________ for cellular work monosaccharides not used immediately by cells are usually incorporated into larger carbs (glycogen/starch), or they may be used to make fat molecules 39 Carbohydrates Disaccharides consists of __________ sugar molecules connected together In order to be used as energy, it must be broken down by hydrolysis into two monosaccharides Disaccharides not used immediately by cells are usually incorporated into larger carbs(glycogen/ starch), or they may be used to make fat molecules Ex. Sucrose (glucose linked to fructose) 40 Carbohydrates Polysaccharides Long ________________ chains made up of simple sugar monomers Four Types Starch - sugar storage molecules for plants Glycogen - sugar storage molecules for animals. These short-term energy storage molecules are found in the muscles and liver. Cellulose - structural building material for plants (Fiber) Chitin - Structural building material for animal exoskeletons (ex. crabs, insects) 41 Big Question The night before a sporting event, what are supposed to eat? Why? 42
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VI. Lipids 43 Lipids Lipid hydrophobic compounds does not _______________ in water Ex. fats, oils, steroids, waxes 44 Lipids Lipid Functions Long-term _______________ storage Fat provides 9 kilocalories(kcal) per gram, more than twice the number provided by carbohydrates (4 kcal)/g) or protein (4 kcal/g) Fats provide essential fatty acids, which are not made by the body and must be obtained from food controls in±ammation, blood clotting, and brain development Lipid Functions Function of Lipids Continued: Helps insulate the body Healthy skin and hair are maintained by fat. Fat helps the body absorb and move the vitamins A, D, E, and K through the bloodstream. Fat Fat also called ________________ consists of a one glycerol three fatty acid tails 47 Saturated Fat Types of Fat saturated fat a fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the max number of hydrogen atoms (all single bonds in the tails) Ex. most animal fat & butter) 48
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Unsaturated Fat Unsaturated Fat contains less than the max number of hydrogen atoms in one or more of its fatty acid chains (double bond present in the tail) ex. corn oil, olive oil, and other vegetable oils 49 Trans Fat Trans Fat
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35 V Carbohydrates 36 Carbohydrates Carbohydrate an organic...

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