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Main supply of for cellular work monosaccharides not

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Main supply of ____________ for cellular work monosaccharides not used immediately by cells are usually incorporated into larger carbs (glycogen/starch), or they may be used to make fat molecules 39 Carbohydrates Disaccharides consists of __________ sugar molecules connected together In order to be used as energy, it must be broken down by hydrolysis into two monosaccharides Disaccharides not used immediately by cells are usually incorporated into larger carbs(glycogen/ starch), or they may be used to make fat molecules Ex. Sucrose (glucose linked to fructose) 40 Carbohydrates Polysaccharides Long ________________ chains made up of simple sugar monomers Four Types Starch - sugar storage molecules for plants Glycogen - sugar storage molecules for animals. These short-term energy storage molecules are found in the muscles and liver. Cellulose - structural building material for plants (Fiber) Chitin - Structural building material for animal exoskeletons (ex. crabs, insects) 41 Big Question The night before a sporting event, what are supposed to eat? Why? 42
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VI. Lipids 43 Lipids Lipid hydrophobic compounds does not _______________ in water Ex. fats, oils, steroids, waxes 44 Lipids Lipid Functions Long-term _______________ storage Fat provides 9 kilocalories(kcal) per gram, more than twice the number provided by carbohydrates (4 kcal)/g) or protein (4 kcal/g) Fats provide essential fatty acids, which are not made by the body and must be obtained from food controls inflammation, blood clotting, and brain development Lipid Functions Function of Lipids Continued: Helps insulate the body Healthy skin and hair are maintained by fat. Fat helps the body absorb and move the vitamins A, D, E, and K through the bloodstream. Fat Fat also called ________________ consists of a one glycerol three fatty acid tails 47 Saturated Fat Types of Fat saturated fat a fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the max number of hydrogen atoms (all single bonds in the tails) Ex. most animal fat & butter) 48
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Unsaturated Fat Unsaturated Fat contains less than the max number of hydrogen atoms in one or more of its fatty acid chains (double bond present in the tail) ex. corn oil, olive oil, and other vegetable oils 49 Trans Fat Trans Fat an unsaturated fatty acid which has the hydrogen atoms of the carbon double bonds on opposite sides of the double bond. formed during a process called ____________________. Considered the worse type of fat. Raises your bad cholesterol (LDL) and lower your good cholesterol (HDL) ex. shortening, hydrogenated oils used to deep fry food Phospholipids Phospholipids hydophillic head group attracted to water a phosphate one glycerol two hydrophobic fatty acid tails 51 Function of Phospholipids major component of cell membranes 52 Steroids Steroid a category of lipid molecules in which the carbon skeleton forms four fused rings 53 54 Types of Steroids
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Function of Steroids Cholesterol Essential molecule found in the _________
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