I glutamate is increased by sexual stimulation ii

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I. Glutamate is increased by sexual stimulation . II. Glutamate stimulates NMDA receptors which activates NOS. III. Increased NO stimulates DA release and/or reduces reuptake.
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Testosterone’s effect on the MPOA and sexual behavior Fig. 7. One means by which testosterone may facilitate male sexual behavior. Testosterone upregulates nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the MPOA. As a result, NO production is increased. NO promotes the release of dopamine in both basal and sexual contexts. The increased MPOA dopamine release enhances responsiveness to stimuli from an estrous female and increases the probability, rate, and efficiency of copulation. (From Hull et al. [37] , with permission.)
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Androgen Receptors
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Abbreviations: CaM, calmodulin; cAMP, cyclic adenosine-3,5-monophosphate; Ca v , voltage-gated Ca2+-channel; CREB, cAMP response element-binding protein; DAG, diacylglycerol; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; Erk, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase; FAK, focal adhesion kinase; G-protein, guanine nucleotide-binding protein; iAR, intracellular-androgen receptror; IP3, inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate; IP3R, IP3 receptor; KATP, ATP-dependent K+-channel; mAR, membrane-androgen receptor; MEK, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase; PI- 3K, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase; PIP2, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate; PKA/B/C, protein kinase A/B/C; PLC, phospholipase C; SHBG, sex hormone binding globulin; SHBG-R, SHBG-receptor; Src, steroid receptor coactivator. Non-genomic, rapid actions of androgens
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Sex and the Brain Female Very similar to the male system Sensory to Medial amygdala Large olfactory component Connects to MPA and also the Ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus (VMH) VMH and MPA connect to the PAG and then to the nPGi in the medulla and down to motor neurons in the lumbar region of the spinal cord
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Estrogen Receptors
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Fig. 4. Model of progesterone-induced neuroprotective signaling. Progestogen prevents synaptic dysfunction associated with aging and neurodegeneration through (1) ligand activation of a progesterone receptor, (2) which initiates second messenger signaling cascades, (3) to promote neuronal survival. These signaling cascades converge on mitochondrial function to protect against toxic insults and include the indirect prevention signaling pathway and the direct protection signaling pathway. In the indirect prevention signaling pathway, both ERK/CREB/bcl-2 and Akt pathways are simultaneously activated, which (4) enhances mitochondrial function and enables neurons to better withstand neurodegenerative insults. The direct protection pathway acts to block Aβ-induced JNK activation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Roberta Diaz Brinton , Richard F. Thompson , Michael R. Foy , Michel Baudry , JunMing Wang , Caleb E. Finch , Todd... Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology Volume 29, Issue 2 2008 313 - 339
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Role of T in Rodent Sexual Behavior
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