to evolve strategies for addressing decent work deficits at the national, state, sectoral and enterprise levels. Though, India has ratified C144 on tripartite consultations, much stronger efforts are required to augment the capacities and roles of constituents and to influence policy outcomes, labour law processes and the monitoring of public initiatives, especially in response to a fast changing labour market. Protecting rights of workers and improving working conditions in economic units are significant but become especially so when seen in terms of emerging trends towards non-standard form of employment (NSFE), shrinking workplaces and blurring relationships between employer-employees. With over 90 per cent of the informal economy still not fully under the ambit of labour market governance systems, there is a potential risk of increasing marginalization and precarious employment with the advent of FoW drivers. This affects the social dialogue scenario in the country. The changes in employment relationships, including the increasing use of contract labour adds to the challenges for the tripartite partners. It makes it more difficult and tricky to extend the coverage of labour laws and regulations to these workers, and to promote decent work in terms of workers’ rights, social protection, income security, and payment of minimum wages. Voices of workers are not heard in the informal economy. An additional challenge is the limited participation of women workers as representatives in social dialogue institutions and processes. There are functional and good tripartite social dialogue practices in a few states in India that can be replicated and shared. With growth in the value chains of the manufacturing sector and changes in the agricultural sector in India, the task of labour administration has become increasingly difficult. It calls for sensitivity, expedition and efficiency at every stage. In particular, the labour inspection system needs to be strengthened by human resources and proactive institutional mechanisms to meet the multiple challenges caused by India’s vast informal economy as well as the perceived cost of reporting and compliance by enterprises. In 2014, in an effort to promote transparency in labour inspection, the central government launched the Shram Suvidha portal, to encourage units to file self-certified, simplified single online returns. The impact of the same needs to be assessed. While efforts are ongoing in the country towards the upgrading and modernization of the labour inspection system in India, the ILO emphasises the need to align this to be in line with C81. Within workplace compliance, safe and secure workplaces are non-negotiable for the ILO constituents. India has had a National Policy on Safety, Health and Environment in place since 2009. Towards its effective implementation, the ILO will support the finalization of the National OSH Profile, development of a National Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Programme
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- Fall '19
- Economics, International Labour Organization