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The eyes o visual association cortex interprets or

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the eyes.oVisual association cortex: interprets or makes sense ofvisual information.Association cortices (important area of cortex)oAreas within different lobes that integrate different types ofinformationBroca aphasia: cannot makes wordsWernicke aphasia: string together words but don’tmake senseMidbrainoMidbrain is the segment of the brainstem that lies betweenthe hindbrain and the forebrain. It integrates sensoryprocesses, such as vision and hearing.One area is also involved in dopamine synthesisoLimbic system: group of several brain structures locatedunder the cortex that are key in things like learning,emotion, memory, and motivation.Homeostasis (keeps things functioning in normalrange; e.g., temperature)Olfaction (smell)MemoryEmotion1stkey part of the Limbic System is thethalamusThalamus is a round structure in the center ofthe brain that acts as the brain’s sensoryswitchboard, relaying incoming sensoryinformation to the appropriate sensory areas inthe cortex. (Except smell)HypothalamusUnder the thalamusVery important in terms of motivationHelps directs several maintenance activitieslike thirst, hunger, body temperature, sleepingand walking, sexual behavior, and emotionsoControls the pituitary glandHippocampus
Plays a vital role in learning and memory (forfacts/knowledge)oAcetylcholineAmygdalaTwo almond-shaped neural clusters linked toemotion, especially fear.Hindbrain: BrainstemMedulla: heartbeat, breathing, swallowingPons: messages between the cerebellum andcortex; sleep, dreamingReticular formation: arousal, attention,alertnessHindbrain: CerebellumControls and coordinates all involuntary, rapid,fine motor movement, as well as voluntarymovements that happen in rapid succession.Chapter 3: Sensation and PerceptionSensationoSense organs detect energy and convert it into neuralsignals (transduction)PerceptionoSelection, organization and interpretation of sensations(uses information already in memory)Conscious experience of environment around usoPerception is not sensationoKey processes include: sensory memory, patternrecognition, and attentionoConstructed, context dependent, error proneThree types of processing in perceptionoBottom-upData drivenExpectations form perceptionoTop-downConceptually driven; expectationsoContext effectsResult from stimuli (can be anything) in the sensoryfield used to gather information about a targetstimuliChapter 4: ConsciousnessSleep and the Circadian Rhythm
o“circa” “diem”: “about a day”: approximately 25 hoursoKey players: suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of thehypothalamus, pineal gland, and melatoninWhen it gets dark: the SCN triggers the sections ofmelatonin from the pineal gland, making us fellsleepyWhen it gets light: the SCN stops the secretion ofmelatonin, allowing the body to wakenOther factors related to sleepoSerotonin

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Term
Spring
Professor
Domangue

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