, Points Earned:, 1/1 Your Response:, E 13., Chemical reactions involve: , A., The sharing or trading of quarks. B., The sharing or trading of protons. C., The sharing or trading of electrons. D., The sharing or trading of neutrons. E., The sharing or trading of partons. The cloud of electrons around the nucleus serve as the Velcro of the universe. Atoms gain or lose electrons and then stick together by static electricity, or else share electrons and stick together inside the shared cloud. The nuclei with their protons and neutrons composed of quarks (which also were called partons at one time) are the things held together by the electronic Velcro of chemistry. Your Response:, C Practice Quiz #2 Your response has been submitted successfully. /// , 2 Points Missed , 3 Percentage , 40% 1., We believe that convection occurs in the Earth’s mantle because: , A., The Earth is cooled deep inside, causing contraction that raises density, more-dense things tend to sink, and the mantle rocks are cold enough to flow slowly even though they are not melted. B., The Earth’s mantle is completely melted, and melting allows convection. C., Graham Spanier is completely melted, and he drives convection in the mantle. D., The Earth is heated deep inside, causing expansion that reduces density, less-dense things tend to rise, and the mantle rocks are hot enough to flow slowly even though they are not melted. E., The Earth’s outer core is completely melted, and this stirs the mantle to cause convection. Convection seems so easy, but describing it in words is not. For “ordinary” convection, one needs something capable of flowing (gas, liquid, or soft solid), heat below and cold above with expansion reducing density on heating and contraction increasing density on cooling, and then a bit of time and a perturbation of some sort to get the motion started. If you had something that expanded on cooling and contracted on heating, and you had cooling below and warming above, you could also make convection work. The mantle is mostly solid, the outer core can’t directly stir the mantle or cause convection, and Graham Spanier was solid and not melted the last time we checked. , Points Earned:, 1/1 Correct Answer:, D Your Response:, D 2., On the Richter scale of earthquake intensity: , A., A magnitude-8 quake is impossible; nothing that big can occur. B., The ground is shaken twice as much by a magnitude-4 quake as by a magnitude-2 quake. C., The ground is shaken 10 times more by a magnitude-8 quake than by a magnitude-7 quake. D., The ground is shaken 6 times more by a magnitude-6 quake than by a magnitude-1 quake.
E., The ground is shaken 10 times more by a magnitude-3 quake than by a magnitude-4 quake. One problem in describing earthquakes is that the ground shaking in the smallest one you can feel is 1,000,000,000 times smaller than the ground shaking in the largest quakes. We usually dislike having a scale that requires us to talk about an event of, say, size 100,000,000; instead, if a magnitude-1 quake moves the ground 10 units (say, 10
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