What general observations does Ikenberry make about the nature of liberal international orders? Pg. 18-211.Liberal int. order can be seen as a distinctive type of inter. order a.Rules/institutions operate as mechanisms of governance b.This type of order creates a foundation in which states can engage in reciprocity and institutionalized cooperation c.Sustained through consent (not balance or command)d.Power balance and hierarchy intervene in various ways to shape and constrain relations 2.More specific features of international order vary widely a.Notions of cooperative security, democratic community, collective problem solving, universal rights, and shared sovereignty have evolved over the last century to inform the agenda of liberal order building b.Liberal international order shaped by the 2 world wars 3.Liberal international order (and waves of liberal order building) has been built upon the modern states system and evolving frameworks for managing great power relationsa.Built on realist foundations b.The Westphalian system has prevailed Be prepared to discuss the continuum of hierarchical political orders with the “imperial” ideal type at one end and the “liberal hegemonic” ideal type at the other. Pg. 22-261.Imperial/empire: a.American postwar political formation is loosely organized order around hierarchical relations of domination and subordination b.Mixed character = hierarchical relations but also mutually agreed upon rules/institutions c.Asserts control over both the internal and external policies of subordinate statesi.It is not itself bound by the rules 2.Liberal hegemony:a.Hierarchical order built around political bargains, diffuse reciprocity, provision of public goods, and mutually agreeable institutions and working relationships b.More limited control over subordinate states c.Establishing and maintaining its rules and institutions d.American postwar order is a more consensual and agreed-upon character than imperial systemsHow does Ikenberry characterize the current hierarchical international order?