as hypertension and diabetes than white Americans (Hampton, Gullotta, and Crowel, 2010; Smedley, Stith, and Nelson, 2002). One major reason for this difference is that race is associated with SES, with blacks being considerably lower in SES on the average than whites. The combination of years of racial oppression, poverty, and physically demanding occupations probably works to generate more stress in the lives of Blacks than in other racial groups at the same socioeconomic status level. Some of the impact of race on health has to do with discrimination. Research shows that even with black Americans have this same level of health insurance as white Americans, they receive fewer and less adequate health care services, and this undoubtedly contributes to their overall higher levels of illness and health problems (Smedley, Stith, and Nelson, 2002). ECONOMIC STRESS & OTHER LIFESTYLE FACTORS Industrialization has unquestionably improved people's lives, but it is also created health hazards, some largely unknown preindustrial societies, that contribute to death and misery. For example, stress on the job as well as losing a job (or even the fear of losing a job) have substantial health consequences. They can lead to increased heart disease, hypertension comma and many other physical and mental illnesses, as well as an increased likelihood of death and a reduced life expectancy (Burgard, Brand, and House, 2009; Strully, 2009; Sullivan and von Wachter, 2009). So economic recessions or depressions, such as the Great Recession of 2008, are bad for people’s health. The use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs can also cause serious health problems. There even appears to be an Association between health and quality of a person's family life: people who are married and have children are healthier than people who are single or have no children (Hughes and Waite, 2009). Many human cancers are caused in part by environmental conditions, such as air pollution or chemicals in the water and soil. Mental Illness 4.3 Compare and contrast the three positions on the nature of mental illness and summarize the issues that arise in regard to the treatment of mental disorders. In the past 40 years, the number of people seeking help for psychological distress, either mild or severe, has increased more than four times. This increase, however, does not necessarily mean that more mental illness exists
today. Instead, people are more willing to seek help for psychological distress today because attitudes toward mental illness have changed, and there is less stigma attached to seeking mental health services. The Nature of Mental Illness There is substantial agreement about the basic nature of most physical disorders: Some malfunction or pathology has occurred to a person’s body.
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