Within the family context, Da Nang children act as effective risk communicators to parents and relatives. They share information (a list of things to do before, during and after typhoons) with parents, mainly from what they have learned at school. For example, during Typhoon Haiyan, children helped to pack food, clothes, schoolbooks and essential household items in preparation for evacuation. They actively cooperated during the massive evacuation that took place in Da Nang in 2013. It is within the family context that children are most proactively engaged with disaster and climate change issues. In Khulna, families have developed different coping mechanisms to manage their physical environments and socioeconomic activities when faced with climatic threats of extreme rain, cyclones, flooding or extreme heat. Haque et al . (2014) describes in detail the individual level adaptation activities in the socio-economic and physical domains. The children in the focus group discussions in this research talked about collecting polythene sheets which families put on the roofs and in wall openings to protect from the rain; collecting mud from the river for raising the height of the mud plinths and restoring the mud plinths when they are washed away following prolonged rainfall, waterlogging or flooding; collecting nypa leaves (golpata) to repair damaged houses; putting bricks, stone chips and sand on the pathway in front of the house to facilitate mobility during waterlogging; and looking after animals. The Philippines has some wonderful examples of community-based initiatives in flood-prone rural areas on disaster preparedness and disaster risk reduction planning, some of which secured children’s participation primarily as risk communicators (Gaillard and Maceda, 2009; Molina et al ., 2009). Nonetheless, this study in the urban context of Malolos found very limited involvement of children and families in any climate adaptation activities even within homes. The focus group discussions showed that most families did not have disaster preparedness plans and seldom discussed them even if they had such plans. Consequently, preparedness kits are not available in most households and are not usually adequate (typically they contained only clothes). According to city officials interviewed in this study, parents and not children mostly disobey orders for evacuation sometimes at the expense of their children’s safety. At the community level, disaster preparedness seminars and training are reportedly being regularly conducted by the city government, covering first aid as well as evacuation protocols. The evacuation centres in Malolos are generally the schools, so most children know their way there despite the lack of any signposting of evacuation routes. Evacuation drills are also regularly conducted at school. In Pamarawan, the older children were found to be familiar with areas in the community that are unsafe during floods.
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